Билеты по английскому за 11 класс


1. Travelling by air .Give your counter reasons in fever of flying.

    Many people devote ( посвящают ) their  lives  travelling  .  They  can
spend a lot of time for the road .And they can travel by  car,  by  sea,  by
train , and by air.   Also travelling by air  usually  preferred  by  people
who haven’t got much time  and  they  must  quickly  get  to  another  city,
country or continent. Nowadays there are a lot of businessmen  who  have  to
communicate with people from other countries.  Each  of  us  has  a  lot  of
relatives and friends. Some of them live in  other  countries.  For  example
you live in Russia, Moscow and you have  some  relatives  in  France  or  in
Britain. You certainly can get to GB by train , and by sea but it will  take
you a lot of time. It would be easier if you choose a plane.
    There are some rules in air port which every passengers mast  following
At first  it is necessary to arrive at the airport 2 hours before  departure
time. They must register their tickets, weigh in and register  the  luggage.
Most airports have at least 2 classes of travel,  first  class  and  economy
class, which is cheaper. Each passenger of more than  2  years  of  age  has
free luggage allowance. Generally this limit is  20  kg  for  economy  class
passengers and 30 kg for first class  passengers,  excess  luggage  must  be
paid for except for some articles that can be carried  free  of  charge.  At
first you go through the  Customs,  there  you  mast  fill  in  the  customs
declaration before  you  talk  to  the  customs  officer.  He  may  ask  any
passenger routine questions about declare the things, spirits  ,  tobacco  ,
presents. Then you do to the check - in counter where your ticket is  looked
at, you are given  luggage  tags  and  boarding  passes,  your  .  The  next
formality is filling in the immigration  form  and  going  through  passport
control. The form has to be filled in block letters . You write  your  name,
nationality,  permanent  address   and  the  purpose  of  your  trip.  After
fulfilling all these  formalities you go to the departure lounge  where  you
can have a snack , read a paper buy something  in  the  duty-free  shop  and
wait for the announcement to board the plane.
When you decide to travel by air  you  can  buy  first  and  economy  class
tickets. The  first class is more comfortable than economy and it is always
more expensive .In spite of first class tickets being very  expensive  have
some advantages over economy. At first it is more  comfortable  seats.  The
dinner is much better then in economy class , and  if  you  have  bought  a
first class ticket you can have 30 kg luggage free of charge. Also you have
a private emergency exit  for the first class passages only. You  have  one
more advantage : you can take any drinks free. Although flying by plane  is
very fast it has some inconveniences. There is  a   jet-lag,  a  difference
between the time you are accustomed to and the new time. At first you won’t
be very well because of it , but    don’t worry – it won’t take you long to
get used to it. As a whole to fly by planes  is pleasant and convenient



  2. British Painters

  It is sometimes possible to see the national  character  in  painters  or
groups of painters. But the visual  language  of  art  travels  quickly  and
easily, and artists are influenced by things they see all  over  the  world.
Painters themselves also  travel  and  visited  over  countries.  The  first
important period of English Painting was  started  by  German  visitor  Hans
Holbein the Younger lived in London  between  1527  and  1543,  and  painted
wonderful portraits of the rich and  famous  people.  He  had  learned  from
Italian painters.  Inspired  by  Holbein,  a  school  of  portrait  painters
developed in England. One of the most famous of these painters was  Nicholas
Hilliard, who specialized in miniatures:  very  small,  beautifully  colored
paintings.
  Another great  portrait  painter,  Joshua  Reynolds  (1723-92),  who  too
learning in Italy. The  quality  of  Reynolds  paint  is  differs  from  his
predecessors(предшественники) : William Hogarth and Thomas Gainsborough,  he
represented(представлен)    the   expression   on   the   face    and    the
insights(понимание) into the character.
  Although there have been brilliant British painters,  few  of  them  have
achieved an  international  reputation.  However,  there  is  at  least  one
notable(известный) exception -J.M.W. Turner (1775-185l). His paintings  were
years ahead of their time. He was working in the  first  half  of  the  19th
century, but his work seems to look  forward  to  the  impressionism  of  75
years later.
  In fact the genius of Turner was not really  appreciated  (оцененный)  in
his own time. Only  not long time ago he come to be regarded (быть  расценен
) as the greatest of Br. painters. Much of Turner’s works  is  at  the  Tate
Gallery in London , which is also the best  place  in  the  country  to  see
modern art. The 20th century was an extremely busy  and  exciting  time  for
Br.  painters. At first the tendency was , as often in  past  ,  to  imitate
the European’s  painters. The  French   impressionists  had  taken  the  art
world  like  a storm  and finagle painters try to  copy  them.  The  Picasso
and  Bragne come up with something  completely new – cubism  and  again  Br.
painters followed .
  Only in the middle of the  20th  century  a  new  movement   had  started
actually in this country. Pop art painters caught the imagination  of  young
people. This movement dropped almost all previous (предыдущий)  ideas  about
painting, and picked-up the images of advertising  .  Рop  music  and  cheap
everyday objects. The first artist who do it were Richard Hamilton ,  Edward
Paolozzi and Peter Black(who did the  famous  cover  of  the  Beatles  album
“Sergeant Pepper”)
Nowadays the Br. artists , seem to have given up the traditional forms of
drawing, paining and sculpture. If you go to an art collage exhibition ,
you will probably see photos, constructions with lights and sounds. Media
attention is always on the new ,and  the daring and shocking  works are
often Are awarded  by prizes for its originality. And old-fashion taste and
skill stayed in past.


3. Staying  at the hotel. Speak about everyday services  available  at  the
hotel.

    When you come to another country or city you can stay at your  friend’s
house or flat. But if you haven’t got any relatives or friends you may  stay
at a  hotel. There are 2 sorts of hotels: at the seaside and   in  city  The
hotels at the seaside usually occupied big territory  .  And   the  services
and facilities are usually better there then in city  hotels.  You  can  get
more things free. Also at the seaside hotels food is served usually 2  of  3
times a day and in city hotels you can  get  only  breakfast  .  Before  you
arrive somewhere you can make arrangements about a room of the hotel  you’ll
choose. You can call at the hotel of send  them  a  fax  or  telegram  which
numbers you can find in the advertisement. If you haven’t  done  it  ,  when
you arrive at the hotel it is necessary to come up to the  reception    desk
.There a person can order a room. First of all you must fill in  an  arrival
card. In this card you must gave information about yourself. Your  name  and
surname, telephone number and address besides it is necessary  to point  out
how long are you going to stay here. Also among the seaside hotels the  best
with club system . Usually  on the territory of such hotels  there  are  4-5
storied building with single rooms, double rooms, and  suites  and  separate
there are family cottages. The area of  such  hotels  is  usually  very  big
about 50hectores  . Club system allows to take free any , soft drinks,  food
24 hours a day, because everything is included into the price of  the  tour.
There are all day room services , dry  cleaners,  laundries.  In  the  rooms
there is a refrigerator, bathroom, a satellite TV  and  direct  dial  phone.
Also  such hotels have their own  place on the beach  with  comfortable  sun
beds .You can spend time  riding  horses,  playing     tennis,  golf,  polo,
visiting shops, which  are usually situated in the territory of the  hotels.
In the evenings you can go to the disco or to the restaurant . The  menu  in
the restaurants including different cuisine’s   such  as  :French,  Spanish,
Chinese, Turkish, Russian and so  on. You can order a  yacht  tour  to  some
historical places (if any) or  something  like  that.  After  visiting  such
hotels you’ll return home  happy and refreshed.



5. Pop and classical Music.
Music always been an integral part of human life. In ancient times it
accompanied the ritual ceremonies later it began to occupy more important
place. Then it transformed in a means of passing time. It reached the
highest development only in 20-th century . new directions  appeared  in
music such as jazz, disco, rock-and-roll , rock, pop and so on. The music
which was composed from 17 till 20-th century is usually  calls classical.
That were a sumphonies, ouvertures, suits, sonnats. The most famous
classical musicious were: Bach, Bethoven, Gaiden, Shopen, Rohmaninov and
many others. In 20-th century it was not so popular any more, her the place
was occupied by other genres, such as fate, рор, jazz, and last years
became very popular folk songs.
  As for me i neither like classical nor pop  music. If we are compare them
I’ll prefer the classical As the  songs consists not only of music, not an
unimportant role plays lyrics. In pop music there isn’t both these making
elements.
  There are a lot of  people who enjoyed  by classical  music, they usually
visit concerts of different  symphonic and chamber archers. It is often
people  over 30. They like  and admire this music  and consider  it genius.
Some  compositions ( works) is really  charming( восхитительны)  for
example the Moonlight sonnat  and «to Elise» by Bethoven, and «In cave of
the mountain king” by                       The music is wonderful  and you
can listen it for many times.  And a lot of generations admired and will
admire with it. As if to pop music  it is very hard to tell something
similar about it. I am  very doubt that in (через) 50 years the people will
listen to what have the pop singers composed.  Because  the music  is very
primitive , and  the lyrics are stupid. The y sing only about love  and
some problems which connected with it. And I can’t listen to it at all.
I’ve chosen a rock   music. Nowadays it isn’t  very popular  among young
people. They prefer to listen pop. Rap and so on. The main advantage of
rock music  above all others is lyrics. Rock singers write  music and texts
them selves and for it i respect them more . the most famous rock  group
are : Kino, Alisa, Nau, Krematorium, DDt, and many others. Most of them
appeared 10-25 years ago , but still fortunately  there are people who fond
of such music. Rock singers   write about  eternal (Вечный) problems. In
their lyrics  reflects their fillings                             . And
each of us can find something  close only for him. And that is what rock
music about. And that’s why I like it so mach .



6. Theatre
Roll up! Roll up! Audiences have crowded into the Palladium since it opened
as a music hall in 1910. London's theatres have drawn attention for
unrivalled standards ever since the days of Shakespeare when his plays were
enacted in the Globe Theatre. DruryLane, Shaftesbury Avenue, Haymarket and
the Strand are bright with theatrical lights, with musicals and dramas,
farce and comedy. Theatre isn't confined to the West End: the stages of the
Royal Court in Sloane Square, the Mermaid by  Blackfriars Bridge, the
Barbican in the City and the National Theatre on the South Bank beckon
nightly. Fringe theatre has been growing but with an ever changing choice
of productions to see, for longevity there's nothing to beat Agatha
Christie's The Mousetrap, which runs and runs.

Most British cities have a theatre, but London has the greatest number.
There are over 50 theatres in London's West End, the area in London with
most theatres, and about 35 smaller fringe theatres.
In recent years, musicals have been very successful. About 51A million
people, many of them tourists, go to see a musical every year in London.
Going to the theatre in Britain is not only popular, but also expensive.
Not many young people can afford to go. It is possible to get cheaper
tickets by going to afternoon performances called matinees or by buying
stand-bys, half-price tickets which are sold half an hour before a
performance starts.



7. Speak about foods you like and dislike. Describe any recipe.

    Meals play an important  role  in  human  life.  Because  it  contained
indispensable ingredients  for  life  activity  of  our  organism.  Such  as
dioxides,  fats,  minerals  and  vitamins.  They  are  contained  in   fish,
vegetables, fruits, meat and other food stuffs . To be  healthy  man  should
eat 3  times  a  day.  For  lunch  people  usually  eat  buiscuits,  toasts,
sandwiches, cheese and drink coffee or tea with cream and sugar  accordingly
to your taste . For dinner we eat some soup, salad and fowl,  fish  or  meat
with garnish. Many people have to eat out  of  home  in  restaurants  or  in
cafes  .  In  such  places  you  can   order   French   fries,   hamburgers,
cheeseburgers, crisps, pizza and many  others,  but  these  meals  are  very
harmful for our health. For the last 10 years in  Moscow  and  in  over  big
cities appeared a lot of restaurants and  fast-food  cafes.  And  with  each
year them becomes ever more. The  old  restaurants,  such  as  Prague,  were
advanced, and at the same time has appeared a lot of  new.  From  a  net  of
restaurants of a fast feed(meal) by first has appeared McDonalds,  and  then
Russian bistro Sbarro,  Ёlki palki, Patio pizza and т.д Such trade marks  as
McDonalds , Sbarro and Patio a pizza are known all over the  world,  and  in
what you to the country would not be , whether it be Russia,  Great  Britain
or USA  quality  of  meal  and  е  ё  of  assortment  in  these  restaurants
everywhere identical. And such restaurants as Russian bistro and елки  палки
are only in Russia,  and  were  created  on  an  image  and  similarity   of
McDonalds. each of these restaurants has firm dish.  For  example  McDonalds
associates with Big Mag Sbarro and Patio a pizza offer  very  tasty  pizzas,
in Russian bistro a wide range of pies made on the Russian recipe.  But  the
cheapest  and  qualitative  meal  can  be  found  in  McDonalds.  In  Russia
unfortunately price level in restaurants of a fast food,  and  in  expensive
restaurants very strongly differs and  many people simply  are  not  capable
to pay the accounts. In Great Britain and in USA  considerably  more  people
can  visit restaurants. Plus to all service in  restaurants  of  Russia  can
not be compared with European  yet.  Also  nowadays  many  restaurants  give
services in delivery of their most known dishes directly to  you  home.  For
this purpose it is necessary only to call and to name that want.  In  Europe
this system exists   for  a  long  time,  and  in  Russia  it  has  appeared
absolutely recently. In Moscow besides restaurants with  Russian  there  are
the restaurants with the Chinese,  Japanese,  Indian,  Turkish  and  Spanish
kitchen witch use the large popularity. But it is not  enough  of  them  and
the prices same are accessible not to all .
    As besides restaurants it is possible to find set of tents  in  streets
of Moscow selling hot meal, but the quality of  it  very  doubtful.  I  hope
that in due course will  occur  ever  more  and  more  restaurants  offering
tasty, qualitative and useful meal.



8.Speak about shopping in GB and in Russia

    Europe dictates a fashion to the whole world. Nowadays  France  is  the
centre of fashion. But in the last century  her place was  occupied  by  GB.
At that time a lot of new  modern shops appeared.  Now  their  branches  are
situated all over the world. you can find .  The  Most  famous  of  them  in
London in Oxford Street,  Regent Street, and Knightsbridge . Besides  book’s
,clothes’, food shops in GB there are a lot of supermarkets  and  department
stores where you can buy everything  from a button to a car and furniture.
Here there are the most famous British shops:
     The Body shop: sells perfumes, soap, shampoo  and  skin-care  products
for men and for women.
    Dillons :was open in 1936 as the bookshop to the University of London.
    Next: is the a chain of Popular  fashion  clothes  shops  for  men  and
women. It became famous for the suits which were  worn  by  the  businessmen
and businesswomen at the beginning of the 1980s.
     W.H.Smith: is a national chain of shops  which  sells  newspapers  and
magazines. Smith’s also sell books,  videos,  stationary,  pens  and  office
equipment.
     Harrods : is the famous London department store
    Sainbury’s  supermarkets are one of  the  leaders  in  food  and  drink
selling in Britain.
     But the most famous of British shops all over the  world  is  Marks  &
Spencer . It  attracts a great variety  of  customers,  from  housewives  to
millionaires  .  Princess  Diana,  Dustin  Hoffman  and  the  British  Prime
Minister are just a few of its famous customers. Last year it made a  profit
of Ј529 million, which is more than Ј 10 million a week. It all started  109
years ago, when a young Polish immigrant, Michael  Marks,  had  a  stall  in
Leeds market. He didn’t have many things to  sell:  some  cotton,  a  little
wool, lots of buttons, and  few  shoelaces.  Above  his  stall  he  put  the
notice: “Don’t ask how much-it’s a penny.  10  years  later  ,  he  met  Tom
Spencer and together they started Penny Stalls in many towns  in  the  north
of England. Today there are 564 brunches of M&S all  over  the  world  –  in
America, Canada, Spain, France,  Belgium,  and  Hungary.  In  M&S  the  best
selling clothes are :for  women:  jumpers,  bras,  and  knickers;  for  men:
shirts, socks, pyjamas, dressing gowns, and suits; for  children;  underwear
and socks. Best – sells in food include fresh  chickens,  bread,  vegetables
and sandwiches. Why is M&S so successful? The store bases  its  business  on
three principles: good value,  good  quality,  and  good  service.  Also  it
changes with the times –once it was  all  jumpers  and  knickers.  Now  it’s
food, furniture and flowers as well .Top fashion designers advise on  styles
of clothes.



9. Education in GB and in Russia.
As in other countries the vast majority (Огромное большинство) of people in
medieval Br were illiterate. Written texts were in Latin and exact  of
churchman , there  was only  a small group of  professional clerks , who
could read and write. And sometimes when you needed something to write down
you had to pay one of the clerks for his job.
  After the Norman invasion in 1066 Br. started to join social-political
life of Europe. In that time  the rich families began to employed  clerks
to teach their children at home. Then church mans   began to  open schools
for boys. After French revolution  which  brought  ideas  of social
equality . woman began to demand  access to some sort of education as boys.
 In 1874 Gorton Collage and Cambridge afford the  first university places
for women.
  Nowadays everybody has a right to a school place for a child from age 5
to age 16, and a collage place from 16 to 18. This places are provided free
of charge. In GB there are 2 steps which is free of charge: this is Primary
school ( here learn children  from age 5 to 11) and  Secondary school (from
11 to 18 years old). The Primary school consist of 6 steps, and Secondary
school   education  can be devoted  into 2 parts. First it is 5 steps after
which  children can leave Secondary school after  they pass 11 GCSE exams(
General Certificate of School Education), but they can also  stay at school
or in collage for more 2 years. Most Secondary schools in GB are
comprehensive for example state school s  which take children of all
abilities. About 7% of students  go to privet schools. This schools don’t
receive   any money  from state and they are  usually single sex, and
children live there  during tern-time. Most pupils  in GB schools wear
school uniform. The favorite colors for it  are: blue, gray, black and
marron.
  After Secondary school only 25%  of Students continuos education and go
to universities. GB Universities  are not open  to every one it depends on
your last year in school. And your A-level results. For example  the
Nottingam university accepting students it the have 2 Bs and a C in A-
level.
  In Russia the education system is different. All children must learn from
1 stage to 9 it is obligatory  education. After which pupils  pass 5 exams.
They can leave school or stay for 2 years  more (10 and 11 grades) . it is
High secondary school education. At the end of 11 form all pupils must pass
6 exams. 2 of them are identically to all. It is written literature and
mathematics .  in schools with  the profound study of languages  (foe
example English) the exam on this subject is  considered composure . other
3 or 4  exams pupils choose themselves. During the last form  many pupils
usually attends to the courses of the university they  had chosen. In
Russia everybody  could enter the university, but he  must pass entrance
exams. In  every university they are different.



11. You like your flat and your district. Speak in fever of the place.

I live in Moscow, in North  Orekhovo - Borisovo district. It is situated in
the South of the city. In my district there is  Tzarizansky park . It is a
very old park and it has it own interesting history. Catherine I liked the
village called “Black mud” and she ordered architectures Kazakov and
Bazhenov to build there a residence, but as the name of the village was not
appropriate for a summer residence of empress it was decided to rename it
to Tzarizano. When everything was ready Catherine I didn’t like the
building of Big Palace  and the architects began to remake it but they
didn’t finish their work. For the  many years it remained unfinished. But
about 5 or 7 years ago old buildings were restored. A lot of people like to
walk there and breathe fresh air . It is very important that in our
district there is a forest. It cleans the air. Ecology conditions in our
district are bad as the winds from the North bring polluted air, also in
our district there are a lot of industrial projects. For example near my
house the Tobacco fabric “Ducat” are situated. I live in a 3 room flat.
There are 2 bedrooms, a living room, and a kitchen. In my room there is a
wardrobe , a bed, a desk ,a computer, a tape recorder and some pot plants.
In the kitchen there is a table with chairs , a refrigerator  , a microwave
oven ,  roaster, and a TV set. In the  living room there is a sofa, a TV
set , a hi-fi system and a table with chairs. Besides Tzarizansky park
there is another historical place in our district Kolomenskoe .It is a park
too. In warm days it is very pleasant to walk there with friends . I like
my district because nowadays a lot of new interesting  shops and places
opened here and in has become more modern. Certainly it is a pity that out
district is  situated very far from the center of Moscow and it takes me  a
lot of time to get there, but near my house there is Domodedovskaya metro
station which is very good. The only thing I wish is a better ecological
situation in our district and then everything will be OK  .



13. Speak about advantages and disadvantages of living in a big city , in a
 small town and in the country

    The city is the place where all  industrial  cultural  and  educational
centers are situated. In big cities you can find museums,  theaters,  clubs,
cinemas ,big shops and  hospitals, comfortable modern flats. People  try  to
live in cites because all  necessary  objects  are  situated  near  by.  For
example if you  get ill a hospital or  a chemist’s  shop  will  be  situated
near your home in the city, and if you live in the country it will  be  hard
to find any medical help very quicly . Also in big cites  you can fiend  all
sorts of entertainment such as cinemas clubs entertaining parks and  so  on.
Many people like to spend their free time in them because it  helps them  to
relax and bring them a lot  of  pleasure.  It  is  really  convenient   that
everything you need in daily life  is situated near you.  One  of  the  most
important comforts of big cites is that you  can  fast  get  everywhere  you
like by  underground,  bus,  trolley  bas.  Also  in  big  cities  there  is
electricity therefore you can use  electrical  devices   such  as  TV  sets,
computers, radio, microwave owen, refrigerators and so on. One  more  thing,
without which it would be impossible to live  today  is  the  telephone  and
where there is a telephone there is also Internet. The connection  has  huge
value in  the life of  people and we have got used to it to  such  extent  ,
that it there is no  telephone we feel uncomfortable and lonely.  Yes  ,  it
is really  comfortable,  and  at  first  glance  everything   is  good   but
nowadays   big cites there are a great amount  of  cars  and  factories  Big
cites suffer of overpopulation, dirty air, and  water,  The  streets  became
noisy and after hard working day people cannot   relax.  People  try  to  do
everything to go to  the  countryside  because  only  there  they  can  find
quietness . Every holiday and every  week-end  people  try  to  leave  their
houses  and go to the country. I live in  Orekhovo-Borisovo  North  district
. The ecological conditions here are very bad because near my  house  a  lot
of  industrial objects are  situated. For example near the  Tobacco  factory
“DUCAT” is situated . As for me I prefer to live in a  big  city  because  A
lot of  big shops are situated near my home, but I also  like  to  spend  my
holidays in  the country because after  living  in  the  city  for  about  9
months I begin to get tired.

    .



14. London.

  London is where the invading (вторжение) Romans first crossed the  River
Thames. They built a city a square mile in size, surrounded it with a wall
and called it Londinium. This original site of
London is now called the City of London and is Britain's main financial
center.
 The City is only a very small part of London. In the 11-th  century,
 London began to expand
beyond (Вне) to  City walls when King Edward the Confessor built a huge
abbey at Westminster.
There is  saying "When a man is rtred of London, he is lired of life!" (Dr
Johnson)and it is quite trufful.  You can't  be bebored in London. There
are hundreds of historic buildings, galleries and museums. There are parks
and street markets, over 80 theatres and even more cinemas.
  The centre of London has many different areas Each one has its own
special character. Covent Garden in London’s West End , is crowded with
cafes, clubs and clothes shops. Soho is also known for its clubs.
Knightsbridge has a lot of exclusive and expensive shops, as well as many
of the embassies. Fleet Street is the home of the Law Courts. One part of
the West End has so many Chinese shops and restaurants that it is called
Chinatown. Chelsea and Sloane Street are supposed to be the homes of trendy
rich kids. When you go outside the centre you find many areas which used to
be small villages. The village became part of the city when the city
expanded, but they still managed to keep their village is extremely
expensive. It is on one or the highest hills in London
  Some visitors say that London is an expensive city, but there are a few
things to do which do not cost a lot of money. Most museums are free and
give free guided tours as well as lectures. The Royal Festival Hall on the
South Bank of the River Thames has free music in the foyer every lunch
rime. The National Theatre next to the Royal Festival Hall also has free
concerts in the foyer evening and on Saturday lunchtime. Some cinemas are
cheaper on Mondays; others sell half-prise tickets before  6 pm If you want
to discover London, it is best to start with a tour on a sightseeing bus.
It’s also fun to go on a guided walk. These are advertised in Time Ont, a
weekly magazine that tells you what is happening in London. The walks last
up to 3 hours and have special themes, such as "Ghosts and Haunted
Taverns", "Royal London - Palaces and People", "The Beatles London - Rock
Routes of the Sixties".
  Also there are a lot of beautiful historical places like the Westminster
Abbey. It is a national shrine where the kings and queens are crowned and
famous people are buried. Founded by Edward the Confessor in 1050, the
abbey was a monastery for a long time. The present building dates largely
from the time of henry III who began to rebuild the church , a task which
lasted nearly 300 years. Since William I almost every English monarch has
been crowned in this great church, which contains the tombs and memorials
of many of Britain’s most eminent citizens.



16. Speak about the state of medical servers in Russia. How do  you  imagine
the medical care of the future?

    In our country medical service is provided free of charge. There  is  a
wide network of local out- patient clinics. If a person falls ill  he  calls
a local physician. The doctor visits  his  patient.  And  examines  him.  He
usually sounds the patient’s chest, listens to his heart,  fells  his  pulse
and sometimes  sahes , his blood pressure. He also examines his  throat  and
tonque . After the physician has diagnose the case the  prescribes  medicine
for the descase. Then he writes out a search leave and gives advice  If  the
patient follows the doctor’s instructions , it  doesn’t  take  him  long  to
recover. As soon as he feels better , he  comes  to  the  local  out-patient
clinic for final examination. If the case in  complicated  and  the  patient
needs shecial treatment  he  is  taken  to  the  hospital.The  situation  in
medical service has changed as compared to the previory years. Medicine  has
 become very expensive. Treatment and special tests or surgery  cost  a  lot
of money. Mist people cannot afford being  operated. Nowadays we cannot  say
that medical service is must be given  by  the  government  to  run  medical
service properly. Hospitals and clinics should be better equipped.  Many  of
them  are  old-fashioned  and  need  repairing.  Doctors  and   nurses   are
overworked and underpaid. One of the positive features, which  still  exists
in Russia, medical service in regular medical check-up of  school  children.
It is very important to prevent illness. They are  vaccinated  and  examined
by specialists. I think that medical service should be free  of  charge  for
all people.



18.Museums
There are so many museums and galleries in London that even people who have
lived there for a long time don't know them all. Some are traditional
museums, but many are now making their exhibitions interactive, or hands-
on, to encourage people to touch and understand what is on display. At the
Science ' Museum, visitors can carry out experiments. At the Natural
History Museum, visitors can find out how to look for fossils on the beach.
At the National Gallery, the country's main art gallery, visitors can call
up paintings on computer screens, find out about them and then print out a
plan with their location indicated.
At MOMI, the Museum of the Moving Image, almost all the things on display
move. You can see how the first film was made, listen to the latest stereo
systems and watch the news from the 1960s. The people who work in the
museum are actors: those in the 1950s section are in 1950s costume and can
talk to you about Marilyn Monroe.
The National Gallery was born when King George IV urged (Убеждил)  the
government to purchase (Купить)   a collection of 38 paintings including
six of Hogarth's Marriage A La Mode. Rubens, Rembrandt, other Flemish,
Dutch and Italian Renaissance masters were acquired as years passed and the
Gallery grew, and is still growing. Next door is the National Portrait
Gallery, one of the first major  (Главный)  institutions to acknowledge the
importance of photography in artistic heritage.When the Tate Gallery opened
in 1897 British painters, including Turner, appeared there. The Tate,
beside The Thames, continued collecting British artists from 1850 to join
works by Hogarth, Blake and Pre-Raphaelites and foreign works from the time
of the Impressionists. The British Museum's supreme collection was based on
the will of Sir Hans Sloane in 1753, which prodded Parliament to acquire
his art, antiquities and natural history collections at a sum (Ј 20,000)
far below their actual value. At the same time the Harleian Collection of
Manuscripts was purchased for the nation and on January 15, 1759 the new
museum opened -but only to persons considered acceptable. The King's
Library was built in 1823 and new wings followed. So did a round Reading
Room under a vast copper dome. Ancient works of art abound from Roman
hoardes unearthed in recent years to copies of the Magna Carta, Parthenon
sculptures and Egyptian mummies. The Victoria and Albert Museum is sited
next to a clutch of sister museums - Science and Natural History and
Geological which grew out of Prince Albert's Great Exhibition initiatives.