The Algorithm of a Start and the Development of International Conflicts and Possible Ways of Their Solution

                                 School №5.

 The Algorithm of a Start and the Development of International Conflicts and
                      Possible Ways of Their Solution.

                                                         Composed by Michael

Altynova G.A.

                                Ryazan, 2001
The humanity has come into the Third Millennium having lots of non - solved
problems and one of the most difficult of them is the national one. It
appeared not only in developing countries ( African, Asian, South -
American countries) but in the civilized regions such as Western Europe,
North America and in the former socialist countries of Eastern Europe, that
can hardly be referred to any of these groups. Every day in world news
reports we can see many examples of international conflicts. Ulster,
Kosovo, Chechnya, Palestine, Macedonian - these geographical names are
known by every person who watches TV or reeds  newspapers and the wars
there are becoming  a true menace to international security. Thousands of
people have already perished, millions of them have lost their homes -
these are non - final results of this tragedy called separatism. What is
it? What are the reasons for it? How we can stop it (if we can)? The aim of
my work is to answer these questions.

I have put forward the following statement as hypothesis: the development
of international conflicts is closely connected to the social and economic
situation in the regions where these conflicts take place. In my work I’ll
use some facts proving this connection and explain the factors that
influence the increasing level of ethical  contradictions.

The methods of getting the material used in my work are:

 1. case study
 2. adapting
 3. analysis
 4. making conclusions
 5. making comparisons
    The main source of information for me was Mass Media. I used the
    articles from the magazine «Novoye Vremya» (1992 -2000). The articles
    contain facts related to different countries that have ethnical
    problems. I also used the book by A. B. Krylov «Separatism» ( Moscow
    1990). And, of course, TV reports gave me a lot of information about
    present-day centers of separatism  in the world.

    Separatism is a political movement the aim of which is separation of a
    part of the territory from the whole state and creating an independent
    state there or annexation it to another state. It is based on the
    principle of national self - determination which is wrongly explained
    in the following way: «Each ethnical community should have its own
    territory recognized by other states». But the explanation fixed in the
    world law consists in the right  of ethnosisis to participation in the
    wider social and political process.

    The main reasons for aggravating ethnical extremism are the periods of
    social and economic difficulties together with enforcing of social and
    ethnical contradictions and low efficacy of the work of the authorities
    and police. We can see such situation in Yugoslavia and in the
    countries of the former USSR in the 1990-s, in the republics of Africa
    after becoming independent and so on. Such factors lead to increasing
    attempts to solve the conflicts with the help of power both or the side
    of the existing authorities and opposite communities.

Among the additional reasons are:

 6. mutual territorial pretensions of the ethnosises (in the majority of
 7. struggle for power between ethnical groups at the local, regional and
    national level  (Ulster, Kosovo, Chechnya and other national republics
    of Russian Federation, Afghanistan);
 8. economic backwardness of multiethnic countries (Africa, Asia);
 9. differences in language, traditions, customs, religion, cultural and
    political discrimination ( Ulster till 1972, Kosovo, Bask’s  Land
    (Spain), Kathalony (Spain and France), Kurdistan (Iraq, Iran, Turkey)
  The greatest centers of separatism have their own local specifics which
  is similar in the countries of one area. So it’s possible to mark out 6
  types of separatism.

 0. West - European .  High social mobilization here doesn’t usually get
    out of the limits of «civilized» political struggle ( except Ulster and
    Bask’s land)
 0. East- European. This type is characterized by a great number of
    victims and interference of other countries and organizations (NATO,
    UNO, EC).
 0. Near -Eastern (Islamic). The opposite sides here belong  to one
    religious and cultural basis (Islam). The typical example is the war in
    Kurdistan, the territory of which is now devided between 4 countries.
 0. Asian. The centers of separatism here are noted for many people. For
    example in Indian  states Jamey and Cashmere the number of victims is
    37000 people, in Ceylon - more then 32000 in Philippines - 25000.
 0.  African. The ethnical conflicts there appeared after colonial
    countries had left this region. The wars in Rwanda, democratic republic
    Congo and in other countries became the examples of unfounded cruelty
    and caused the death of millions of people.
 0. American. Ethnical conflicts here are not so wide spread . The most
    famous example is Quebec, but the struggle for independence there is
    only political.
  Thus we can see that the start and the development of ethnical conflicts
  are influenced by geographical, social and economic factors.
  Understanding this influence can lead to making up of recommendations to
  prevent  such problems. I’ll mention some of them.

  Firstly, we should distinctly define the limits of the using of military
  power. This power shouldn’t be used to protect political or economic
  interests of some ethnical structures.

  Secondly, the UNO should declare the struggle against separatism as one
  of the most important tasks in its activities. This struggle may include
  working out of  international laws, economic help to multyethnical

  Thirdly, developed countries should assign money to stable social and
  economic situation in the developing states because the problem of
  ethnical separatism is a threat to security in the whole world.

  And the last, global and especially local cooperation between different
  countries should be extended not only because the whole world community
  is able to find away out of ethnical conflicts but also because the
  process of world integration can make the appearance of separatism


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