дипломные работы, иностранные языки
Объем работы: 55 стр.
Год сдачи: 2008
Chapter 1. Definition of nonverbal communication 6
1.1. Communication 6
1.2. Types of nonverbal communications 9
1.2.1. Definition of the nonverbal communication 9
1.2.2. Facial Expression 16
1.2.3. Gestures 18
1.2.4. The color of clothes 27
Chapter 2. Prosody in nonverbal communication 31
2.1. Definition of prosody 31
2.2. Links between prosody and gesture communication 32
2.2.1. Intonation 37
2.2.2. Rhythm 38
2.3. Communication of semantic information 39
2.4. The role of prosody in nonverbal communication 44
2.4.1. Noncommunicative functions of nonverbal behaviors 45
2.4.2 Interpersonal and intrapersonal functions of nonverbal behaviors 46
Being complex facial and psychological process of mutual understanding between people dialogue is carried out by means of signs, but it is more exact than sign systems. There are two types of communication: verbal communication (words are used as means of communication) and nonverbal (various nonverbal sign systems are used). However nonverbal communication demands more detailed division into various forms. Specialists present 4 basic forms of nonverbal communication: kinetic, paralinguistic, procsemic and visual communication.
Verbal communication uses human speech as sign system. Speech is a universal means of communication as information being transferred by means of speech less of the message is lost. But it happens only in case when there is a high degree of common understanding of the situation by all participants of communication process.
Coding and decoding of the information are carried out by means of speech: the communicator decodes this information in the process of speaking. Accuracy of understanding the sense of the statement can become obvious for the communicator only when there will be a change of “communication roles”: i.e. when the recipient will become the communicator and will show that he has understood the statement by representing the sense of the accepted information.
Speech being a means of communication acts both as a source of information and as a way of influence on the partner. To describe completely the process of mutual influence it is not enough to know only the structure of the communication act, it is also necessary to analyze motives of communication, purposes, intentions and so on. For this purpose it is necessary to discuss those sign systems which are included in the act of communication besides speech.
Albert Mejerabian has revealed, that transfer of the information occurs due to verbal means (only words) for 7%, due to sound means (including tone of a voice, intonation of a sound) for 38%, and due to...
The impression which arises at seeing the person, plays an important role in the communication. On the basis of the first impression of the person we form our ideas not only about exte
al shape, but also about intentions, ideas, abilities, emotions, intentions of the partner in the communication.
To understand a person it is very important to read nonverbal signals as it allows us to see the private world of the person, his reaction to the occurring events. The features creating a barrier in perception level include lack of ability to listen, arrogance, impatience and nervousness, irascibility, hypocrisy, excessive self-confidence, persistence, etc.
Results and conclusions of this research can be formulated as positions, taken away on defence:
1) one of grounds of non-verbal prosody co-operation is целеустановка utterances the value of future utterance determines and forms Purpose of utterance and all of communicative act. The value of utterance and his purpose is expressed in a communicative act, along with other facilities, by verbal and unverbal elements. Consequently, the joint functioning of prosody and kinetic units is conditioned including that they jointly pass a general value and submit a single purpose;
2) non-verbal co-operation; to formation of non-verbal prosody complexes. Under a non-verbal prosody complex a gesture phrase and prosody ke
el is understood, jointly functionings. Invariant and variants of non-verbal complexes is selected. From our data of motion of head and change of mien it is possible to consider gesture in non-verbal prosody complexes;
3) co-operation is carried by functional character. Functional co-operation is directly observed in monologue speech and realized in non-verbal prosody complexes, research of value of utterance, and also determination of purpose of utterance communicative-pragmatic types rotined.