Информация

  • 1161. Siemens: краткая информационная справка
    История

    Пожалуй, уже из истории о создании корпорации Siemens понятно, что ее профиль не ограничивается производством нескольких наименований товаров. Предприятие включает в себя более десятка подразделений, работающих в различных сферах: энергетика, информатика и связь, автоматизация управления, компьютеры, бытовая техника, светотехника, медицина, транспорт. По словам Герхарда Вибираля, главы представительства Siemens в России, “широкий профиль продукции от турбины до микрочипа а также объемный пакет ноу-хау позволяют фирме предлагать и реализовывать крупные комплексные проекты „из одних рук”, начиная с планирования проекта и заканчивая сдачей объектов под ключ и обучением персонала”. Плюс ко всему “Siemens, как предприятие мирового уровня, выступает носителем новой глобальной тенденции мобильного бизнеса, позволяющего соединить преимущества электронного бизнеса с мобильным доступом в Интернет”.

  • 1162. Sir Henry Rider Haggard
    Разное

    The story begins one rainy night, when a man of twenty-two Ludwig Horace Holly was sitting in his room at Cambridge, grinding away at some mathematical work. At last, wearied out, he flung his book down and happened to catch sight of his countenance in the glass. As he stood and stared at himself in the glass Horace Holly thought about his physical deficiencies. Most men of twenty-two are endowed at any rate with some share of the comeliness of youth, but to him even this was denied. Short, thick-set, and deep chested almost to deformity, with long arms, heavy features, deep-set gray eyes, a low brow half overgrown with black hair he was strikingly ugly person. It seemed that he was branded by Nature with iron strength and intellect. Ludwig Horace Holly was so ugly that the spruce young men of his College, though they were proud enough of his endurance and physical powers, did not want even to be seen walking with him. Women called him a “monster”. He had neither father, nor brother. And that is why it was not surprising that Horace Holly became sullen, lonely person, who had no wife, no children, no friends.

  • 1163. Sir Isaac Newton
    Разное

    In 1672 Newton was elected a fellow of the Royal Society after donating a reflecting telescope. Also in 1672 Newton published his first scientific paper on light and colour in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. The paper was generally well received but Hooke and Huygens objected to Newton's attempt to prove, by experiment alone, that light consists of the motion of small particles rather than waves. The reception that his publication received did nothing to improve Newton's attitude to making his results known to the world. He was always pulled in two directions, there was something in his nature which wanted fame and recognition yet another side of him feared criticism and the easiest way to avoid being criticised was to publish nothing. Certainly one could say that his reaction to criticism was irrational, and certainly his aim to humiliate Hooke in public because of his opinions was abnormal. However, perhaps because of Newton's already high reputation, his corpuscular theory reigned until the wave theory was revived in the 19th century.

  • 1164. SiSoft Sandra
    Компьютеры, программирование

    В мире насчитываются десятки миллионов аналогов PC совместимых компьютеров. Это объясняется огромной популярностью стандартного IBM PC компьютера и их доступностью широки массам пользователей всемирным парком вычислительной техники. Все они, как предполагается, являются 100 процентов совместимыми с реальной вещью. Однако сегодня, поскольку фирма IBM больше не выпускает спецификации на новые аппаратные средства, все чаще применяется термин - истинно IBM совестимый, который мог бы означать сегодня как наиболее популярная спецификация, т.е. материнская плата, графический контроллер, некоторый процессор, который широко используется, следовательно, обеспечиваемый большинством программного обеспечения. Истинно IBM совместимый мог бы означать одно (если доступно), программное обеспечение, используемое в компаниях (например Microsoft) - если это работает на их оборудовании, то это будет работать и на вашем оборудовании также.

  • 1165. SkinHeads - История борьбы
    Политология

  • 1166. Small business lending in Kazakhstan (предоставление кредитов малому бизнесу в Казахстане)
    Разное

     

    1. Blinov A. (1993) Razvitiye predprinimatelstva Economist No.6:70-73
    2. Dauanov I. (2000) Maliy biznes: problemi oformleniya kredita AlPari 5: 81,82
    3. Ershova G. (1995) Podderzka malogo predprinimatelstva Finansi No.2:17-18
    4. Finansirovanie I kreditovaniye subyektov malogo biznesa, 2001 http://business.zakon.kz/fincredit/
    5. Isabekov A. (1997) Problemi razvitiya malogo I srednego biznesa v Kazakhstane Economika Kazakhstana No.5-6:120-123
    6. Karibayev A. (1997) Razvitiye malogo predprinimatelstva v Vostochno-Kazahstanskoi oblasti Economika Kazakhstana No.4:13-15
    7. Kazbekov S. (1998) Kogda ge mladenez vstanet na nogi? Finansi Kazakhstana No.11:74-75
    8. Kozizin S. (1997) Mal kredit da dorog Finansist No.3:15-19
    9. Krediti dlya malogo biznesa EBRR, 2001 http://www.fund.kz/ebrr_c.html
    10. Kreditovaniye, 2001 http://www.kkb.kz/banking_re/sber/service/06_credit.asp
    11. Law of Republic of Kazakhstan from 19 July 1997 N 131-1 O gosudarstvennoi poddershke malogo predprinimatelstva(with amendments to this law in 10.07.98 № 283-1; in 26.07.99 № 458-1; in 29.11.99 № 488-1)
    12. Mahanov Z. (1997) O rossiyskoy federalmoi programme gosudarstvennoy podderzke malogo predprinimatelstva Economika Kazakhstana No.9-10:79-84
    13. Mishin A. (1998) Investizionnaya podderzka malogo bisnesa PEZ No.5:61-70
    14. Mukhamedghanov G. (1997) Sistema gosudarstvennoy podderzke malogo I srednego predprinimatelstva v promishlenno razvitih stranah Economika Kazakhstana No.9-10:116-121
    15. Osnovniye prinzipi kreditovaniya MP, 2001 http://www.tacisinfo.ru/brochure/banksme/pzayav_m.htm
    16. Sahauyeva Zhanar, 2001, interview
    17. Tukayev A. (1998) Analys raxvitiya malogo biznesa v Kazakhstane Al Pari No.2:69-74
    18. Turgulova A. (1999) Gde brat dengi na maliy busines? Finansi Kazakhstana No.8-9:115-118
    19. Umbetov A. (1999) The role of banks in small business credit Al Pari No.2:29-33
    20. Vilenskiy A. (1999) Finansovaya podderzka malogo predprinimatelstva Economist No.9:88-90
    21. Yevropeyskiy bank rekonstrukzii I razvitiya, 2001 http://www.fund.kz/ebrr_c.html
    22. Appendixes.
  • 1167. Social democracy
    Иностранные языки

    In February 1938 the anti-Lang forces tasted victory, when they took possession of the offices of the Labor Daily. Behind the scenes the Political Bureau of the CPA discussed the situation and devised «a plan covering the taking over of the Labor Daily and replacement of various members of the staff». The price of victory was the repayment of a loan which Lang had earlier made to the newspaper. The Labor Council decided to make a clean break and to change the format and name of the newspaper. What emerged in late 1938 was the Daily News. To bankroll this undertaking Hughes called on a rather unusual source. For some time Hughes had been cultivated by the general manager of the Bank of New South Wales, Sir Alfred Davidson, a forward-looking banker who made a habit of selecting and promoting talented young people. Davidson had been appalled by Lang's hostility to the banks while Premier and made overtures to Lang's enemies on both the right and left. For example, Davidson paid for an organising tour by Hughes of interstate trade union centres when the anti-Lang forces were trying to influence the ALP federal executive. Davidson apparently looked on Hughes as a possible national Labor leader with whom he could garner some influence. In establishing the Daily News Hughes used his influence with Davidson to get a substantial bank loan. A version of the Hughes-Davidson relationship appeared in Lang's autobiography in which Lang said that in 1938 Davidson invited the visiting British Labour figure, Ernest Bevin, to a dinner with Hughes, Evans, Lloyd Ross and F. O'Neill, all Labor dissidents. At the time, however, Hughes' contact with Sir Alfred Davidson was by no means public. The unusual alliance between a communist and a top banker was one of the odd consequences of the CPA's underground work in the Labor Party.

  • 1168. Social stratification in modern Russia
    Социология

    There are three main approaches to identifying social classes: the objective method, the self-placement method, and the reputational method. Although all the approaches overlap in classes, there are appreciable differences in the results afforded by each. Moreover, each method has certain advantages and disadvantages (see Table 1).

    1. The objective method. The objective method views social class as a statistical category. The categories are formed not by the members themselves, but by sociologists or statisticians. Most commonly people assigned to social classes on the basis of income, occupation, or education (or some combination of these characteristics). The label “objective” can be misleading, for it is not meant to imply that the approach is more “scientific” or “unbiased” than the others. Rather, it is objective in that numerically measurable criteria are employed for the placement of individuals.
    2. The self-placement method. The self-placement method (also known as the subjective method) has people identify the social class to which they think they belong. Class is viewed as a social category, one in which people group themselves with other individuals they perceive as sharing certain attributes in common with them. The class lines may or may not conform to what social scientists think are logical lines of cleavage in the objective sense.
    3. The reputational method. In the self-placement method people are asked to rank themselves. In the reputational method they are asked how they classify other individuals. This approach view class as a social group, one in which people share a feeling of oneness and are bound together in relatively stable patterns of interaction. Thus class rests on knowledge of who associates with whom.
  • 1169. Socionical approach in studding of nations
    Разное

    abilities intuitionthe knock of human abilities feeling; sensing of developments perspectives; integral perception of the world, feeling of its unity, interdependency, reiteration on different levels of worlds hierarchy; understanding of the very essence of subjects and processes.times intuitionthe understanding of contradictions in outer world and in human psyche; the understanding of opposites, which separate people and events; feeling of danger; aptitude for seeing vainnessvolitional sensoricsaptitude for controlling of outer spaciousness; ability for putting pressure on others and to stand up to anyones pressure; understanding of enemys force and enforce; power; will to win; authority of powersensation sensoricscapacity for bodys necessities satisfaction, sensation of own body; beauty, design, turning towards the high inner quality; cosiness and comfortdynamic logicreasonable acting logic; technology, process, method, procedure, rule, algorithm, conveyor, cause and effect, enterprisestatic logicaptitude for systematizing knowledge and phenomena; deep understanding of logical correlation between objects; facts system, hierarchy, classification, statistics, register and verification, machineryemotions ethicscapacity for feeling persons emotional state, for its controlling; ability for inspiring people with joy, enthusiasm or fear, horror, anxiety, panic.relations ethicsworlds perception through peoples relations; the ability for adjusting needing relations; sense of duty; tolerance, love, kindness, charity, humanity

  • 1170. Solidarity rights: universality and diversities
    Юриспруденция, право, государство

    Nonetheless, there is widespread opinion that indiscriminate recognition of numerous demands or values as human rights would weaken the idea of human rights in general. However, the inclusion of collective rights (the right to political determination and the right to sovereignty over natural resources) in the two fundamental universal human rights instruments over thirty years ago has not ruin individual human rights and it is doubtful to do so. In the same way many authors are afraid of possible underestimation of individual rights in favor of collective rights. This idea is supported by the fact that the worst violations of individuals human rights occurred in the name of some “inspiring abstraction”, such as “the one true faith”, “the nation”, “the State”, etc. The term “people” is an abstraction as well. As a result, grave abuses of individual human rights might occur under “legitimating” label of collective interest, if any of the individual rights and freedoms protected by modern international human rights law ever will be regarded as in some sense inferior to peoples rights. On the other hand, there is a view that “peoples... are above all people” and that consequently such order has its advantages as well. According to the latter approach the main function of collective rights is still their benefit to the individual. Groups have no ultimate or necessary value, but they are a way in which individuals achieve various ends, which are necessary or desirable (in particular the good of community and the fulfillment of certain human capacities and attributes which are best fulfilled in community.) There is an opinion, that recognition of collective rights as human rights is meaningful as far as specific collective goods are essential for human self-realization. Such a conception of collective rights is called the “collective” conception, as opposed to the “corporate” one. The latter conception implies that rights are held by a single corporate entity and used for pursuing a common aim, unconnectedly to any individual composing it; whereas in the “collective” conception the rights are united, but the interests of the group members are different.

  • 1171. Solidarity rights:universality and diversities
    Разное

    Nonetheless, there is widespread opinion that indiscriminate recognition of numerous demands or values as human rights would weaken the idea of human rights in general. However, the inclusion of collective rights (the right to political determination and the right to sovereignty over natural resources) in the two fundamental universal human rights instruments over thirty years ago has not ruin individual human rights and it is doubtful to do so. In the same way many authors are afraid of possible underestimation of individual rights in favor of collective rights. This idea is supported by the fact that the worst violations of individuals human rights occurred in the name of some “inspiring abstraction”, such as “the one true faith”, “the nation”, “the State”, etc. The term “people” is an abstraction as well. As a result, grave abuses of individual human rights might occur under “legitimating” label of collective interest, if any of the individual rights and freedoms protected by modern international human rights law ever will be regarded as in some sense inferior to peoples rights. On the other hand, there is a view that “peoples... are above all people” and that consequently such order has its advantages as well. According to the latter approach the main function of collective rights is still their benefit to the individual. Groups have no ultimate or necessary value, but they are a way in which individuals achieve various ends, which are necessary or desirable (in particular the good of community and the fulfillment of certain human capacities and attributes which are best fulfilled in community.) There is an opinion, that recognition of collective rights as human rights is meaningful as far as specific collective goods are essential for human self-realization. Such a conception of collective rights is called the “collective” conception, as opposed to the “corporate” one. The latter conception implies that rights are held by a single corporate entity and used for pursuing a common aim, unconnectedly to any individual composing it; whereas in the “collective” conception the rights are united, but the interests of the group members are different.

  • 1172. Sony Vegas 9.0
    Компьютеры, программирование

    Как показывает опыт, многие пользователи, говоря "Sony Vegas", подразумевают разное. Создатели программы предусмотрели несколько достаточно разных по возможностям версий программы. "Старшая" версия Vegas Pro позиционируется как профессиональный редактор с максимумом возможностей (и соответствующей ценой, разумеется). Для простых любителей, или тех людей, которым достаточно некоторых базовых возможностей, предусмотрена версия Vegas Movie Studio. Стоимость ее лицензии значительно ниже - естественно, за счет ограничения возможностей перед "старшей" версией Pro. Однако, это не означает, что "младшая" версия урезана до почти примитивных возможностей редактора вроде Windows Movie Maker, который встроен в систему Windows. На базе этой версии такжесделаны расширенные (хотя и тоже "младшие") версии Vegas Movie Studio Platinum и Vegas Movie Studio Platinum Pro Pack. В чем же различия между ними?

  • 1173. Soul of Socіаlіsm
    История

    Thе sеquеl іs аlso known, though oftеn glossеd ovеr. Whіlе Fаbіаnіsm аs а spеcіаl tеndеncy pеtеrеd out іnto thе lаrgеr strеаm of Lаbor Pаrty rеformіsm by 1918, thе lеаdіng Fаbіаns thеmsеlvеs wеnt іn аnothеr dіrеctіon. Both Sіdnеy аnd Bеаtrіcе Wеbb аs wеll аs Bеrnаrd Shаw - thе top trіo - bеcаmе prіncіplеd supportеrs of Stаlіnіst totаlіtаrіаnіsm іn thе 1930s. Еvеn еаrlіеr, Shаw, who thought socіаlіsm nееdеd а Supеrmаn, hаd found morе thаn onе. Іn turn hе еmbrаcеd Mussolіnі аnd Hіtlеr аs bеnеvolеnt dеspots to hаnd socіаlіsm down to thе Yаhoos, аnd hе wаs dіsаppoіntеd only thаt thеy dіd not аctuаlly аbolіsh cаpіtаlіsm. Іn 1931 Shаw dіsclosеd, аftеr а vіsіt to Russіа, thаt thе Stаlіn rеgіmе wаs rеаlly Fаbіаnіsm іn prаctіcе. Thе Wеbbs followеd to Moscow, аnd found God. Іn thеіr Sovіеt Communіsm: а Nеw Cіvіlіzаtіon, thеy provеd (rіght out of Moscows own documеnts аnd Stаlіns own clаіms, іndustrіously rеsеаrchеd) thаt Russіа іs thе grеаtеst dеmocrаcy іn thе world; Stаlіn іs no dіctаtor; еquаlіty rеіgns for аll; thе onе-pаrty dіctаtorshіp іs nееdеd; thе Communіst Pаrty іs а thoroughly dеmocrаtіc еlіtе brіngіng cіvіlіzаtіon to thе Slаvs аnd Mongols (but not Еnglіshmеn); polіtіcаl dеmocrаcy hаs fаіlеd іn thе Wеst аnywаy, аnd thеrе іs no rеаson why polіtіcаl pаrtіеs should survіvе іn our аgе…

  • 1174. SPAM
    Компьютеры, программирование

    Такие письма распознать сложнее, потому что здесь спамеры извращаются со страшной силой. Их цель - заставить вас кликнуть на ссылку, стоящую в письме. Средства для этого выбираются всякие разные. Вам могут написать, что данное письмо - рассылка, на которую вас подписали, а отписаться вы можете, нажав на определенную ссылку (никакой формы для отписки там, разумеется, нет). Однако нередко подобные письма маскируются под глубоко личные, даже интимные послания из серии: «Привет, друг! Помнишь еще меня? Мы с тобой в школе учились с восьмого класса. Я тебя через Интернет нашел. У меня все нормально. Вот, сайт свой слабал с фотками. Хочешь посмотреть? Вот ссылка…». Ну или «Здравствуй, котик. Что-то ты слишком быстро пропал из ICQ. А я тебе хотела свои фотки показать с отдыха на море. Ну не беда, их все можно увидеть вот здесь - …» Ну и так далее. Расчет, как видите, весьма точный. Письма явно похожи на личные, обращенные именно к вам. Отличительная особенность таких писем: наличие в них ссылки, на которую нужно нажать (иначе для спамера письмо не имеет никакого смысла), а кроме того, в нем вас никогда не называют по имени, а приветствуют по строчке перед «@» в адресе письма, так что если ваш адрес выглядит как «Придурковатый_молодчик@mail.ru», то письмо, пришедшее от «одноклассника», будет выглядеть как: «Привет, Придурковатый_молодчик! Помнишь меня?.»

  • 1175. Special fields of psychology
    Психология

    An important school of thought is based on the teachings of the British psychoanalyst Melanie Klein. Because most of Kleins followers worked with her in England, this has come to be known as the English school. Its influence, nevertheless, is very strong throughout the European continent and in South America. Its principal theories were derived from observations made in the psychoanalysis of children. Klein posited the existence of complex unconscious fantasies in children under the age of six months. The principal source of anxiety arises from the threat to existence posed by the death instinct. Depending on how concrete representations of the destructive forces are dealt with in the unconscious fantasy life of the child, two basic early mental attitudes result that Klein characterized as a “depressive position” and a “paranoid position.” In the paranoid position, the egos defense consists of projecting the dangerous internal object onto some external representative, which is treated as a genuine threat emanating from the external world. In the depressive position, the threatening object is introjected and treated in fantasy as concretely retained within the person. Depressive and hypochondriacal symptoms result. Although considerable doubt exists that such complex unconscious fantasies operate in the minds of infants, these observations have been of the utmost importance to the psychology of unconscious fantasies, paranoid delusions, and theory concerning early object relations.

  • 1176. Speeches workers Grodno province in 1905-1907 and the emergence of trade unionism
    История

    For example, the strike of solidarity with the St. Petersburg workers in the town of Grodno County Krynki 17-19 January 1905 it was prepared by the organization of the Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania and the Social-Democratic Committee of the Bund. Strikers all 46 tanneries town. Before working disarmed all the local authorities, captured by administrative agencies, the police broke up and destroyed all the affairs of the parish councils and portraits of the king in all institutions, cut down telephone poles through Volkovysk, Sokolki, Bialystok, Grodno. Many of the strikers were armed with revolvers. Demonstrators (more than 2 thousand people) marched through the town singing revolutionary songs and slogans: "Down with the autocracy government!", "Long live the people's revolution," "Give us 8-hour working day". The rebels drove the whole day all borough. By order of the Governor in Krynki were introduced troops, who with great difficulty, suppressed the action of the workers [6, l.11-12; 3, s.459].

  • 1177. Spider Project - первая российская система управления профессионального уровня
    Экономика

    Отличия в задании ресурсов наиболее значительны. Ресурсы подразделяются на возобновляемые (люди, механизмы) и невознобляемые (материалы). В большинстве пакетов те и другие задаются вместе, отличия обычно заключаются лишь в задании стоимости их использования - в час или за единицу. В Spider Project эти виды ресурсов задаются отдельно. При этом можно задать, что возобновляемые ресурсы потребляют материалы (пример: автомобиль потребляет бензин). Тогда назначив ресурсы на исполнение операций проекта вы автоматически учитываете попутное потребление необходимых материалов. Кроме отдельных ресурсов можно задать мультиресурсы и пулы. Мультиресурсы - это группы ресурсов, которые выполняют работы вместе (например, бригада, экипаж, автомобиль с шофером и т.д.). Мультиресурсы можно назначать на исполнение операций целиком, что означает назначение всех ресурсов, которые в них входят. Пулы - это группы взаимозаменяемых ресурсов. Основное отличие от подходов, используемых в других пакетах, в которых имеется skill scheduling, заключается в том, что ресурсы пула могут иметь различные производительности.

  • 1178. Sport in the United Kingdom
    Иностранные языки
  • 1179. Sport is an Essential Part of Life
    Иностранные языки

    In the Soviet Union junior sport was well-developed. There were many sport clubs, stadiums, grounds and gyms all over the country. Many competitions between schools took place in every town. In our clubs the best coaches worked. Among the sports popular in our country are football, basketball, swimming, volleyball, ice hockey, tennis, gymnastics, and figure skating. A person can choose sports and games for any seasons and for any taste. Unfortunately the situation has changed to the worse in the nineties. If an athlete wants to reach a good result he has to train abroad. Many qualified coaches left Russia, because of the material factor. The number of free sports clubs for children reduced greatly. More childrens clubs became paid ones. Many stadiums and gyms were changed into markets and shops. Some talented athletes cant regularly participate in competitions because they must go to other towns and live there at their own expenses, paying for the tickets, hotels and meals with their own money. Sports equipment and sports clothes are rather expensive, too.

  • 1180. Sport: general, in Britain
    Медицина, физкультура, здравоохранение

    People all over the world are fond of sport. Some people do morning exercises, train themselves in clubs and in different sections. There are many sport clubs that anyone can join. Light athletics gives much opportunity to those who go in for it. It includes track field events: running, long-jumping, high jumping, and others. But therere a lot of people, who like sport too but they only watch sport games and listen to sport news. They prefer to read interesting stories about sportsmen. But they dont go in for sport.