of the most important and common tools that authors use to illustrate the themes of their works is a character that undergoes several major changes throughout the story. In Great Expectations, Charles Dickens introduces the reader to many intriguing and memorable characters, including the eccentric recluse, Miss Havisham, the shrewd and careful lawyer, Mr. Jaggers, and the benevolent convict, Abel Magwitch. However, without a doubt, Great Expectations is the story of Pip and his initial dreams and resulting disappointments that eventually lead to him becoming a genuinely good man. The significant changes that Pip's character goes through are very important to one of the novel's many themes. Dickens uses Pip's deterioration from an innocent boy into an arrogant gentleman and his redemption as a good-natured person to illustrate the idea that unrealistic hopes and expectations can lead to undesirable traits. the beginning of the novel, Pip is characterized as a harmless, caring boy, who draws much sympathy from the reader even though he is at that point content with his common life. The reader most likely develops warm and sympathetic feelings toward Pip after only the first two pages of the novel, which introduce the fact that Pip's parents are "dead and buried" and that the orphan has never seen "any likeness of either of them" .Pip's confrontation with the convict presents his harmless, innocent nature. As Magwitch first seizes the young boy, Pip simply responds, "Oh! Don't cut my throat, sir, Ö Pray don't do it sir" (p. 2). Then, Pip is forced into submitting to the convict's demands, mainly due to his naive fear of Magwitch's fictitious companion who "has a secret way peculiar to himself of getting at a boy, and at his heart, and at his liver". Even though he aids the convict, the reader's sympathy for Pip soon increases, as his robbery of his own home weighs greatly on his conscience. He seems to sincerely regret his actions and the fact that he "had been too cowardly to avoid doing what I knew to be wrong". Approximately one year after his encounter with the convict, Pip is still shown to be an innocent, caring boy. One night, when Pip and Joe are alone at the forge, Joe explains his various reasons for enduring Mrs. Joe's constant abuse. After their conversation, Pip realizes that he cares deeply for Joe and appreciates everything that the blacksmith does for him. Also, he develops "a new admiration of Joe from that night" and "a new sensation of feeling conscious that I was looking up to Joe in my heart". Unfortunately, as Pip develops unrealistic hopes and expectations for his life, these positive characteristics are replaced by undesirable ones. expectations that cause Pip's character to become less likable are those that he develops after being introduced to Miss Havisham and Estella. During his first visit to the Satis House, Estella, who considers herself much too refined and well-bred to associate with a common boy, scorns Pip. On the other hand, Pip seems to fall in love with Estella during that first meeting. He even admits to Miss Havisham that he thinks her adopted daughter is not only "very proud" and "very insulting," but also "very pretty" and that he should "like to see her again". After just one afternoon at the Satis House, Pip develops a desire to become more acceptable to Estella, in hopes that her callous attitude toward him would change. As a result, while walking back to the forge, Pip begins to feel ashamed of his life. His mind is filled with regretful thoughts such as "that I was a common laboring-boy; that my hands were coarse; that my boots were thick; and generally that I was in a low-lived bad way". Pip realizes that his personality and outlook on his life is changing. his visits to the Satis House cease and he is apprenticed to Joe, Pip becomes even more deeply ashamed of his position in society because he believes that it will ruin his hopes of Estella loving him. He constantly worries that Estella will see him at the "unlucky hour" when he is at his "grimiest and commonest", but he endures his shame with an irrational hope, "that perhaps Miss Havisham was going to make my fortune when my time was out". Then, when Mr. Jaggers informs Pip of the "great expectations" that have been placed on him, Pip thinks, without a doubt, "Miss Havisham was going to make my fortune on a grand scale". Also, he begins to believe that Miss Havisham has destined him to be married to Estella. Almost immediately, Pip's ego grows tremendously, and he becomes arrogant as he looks down on his "common," yet caring and loyal friends. For example, in a private conversation with Biddy, Pip tells his good friend that Joe "is rather backward in some things. In addition, when Pip is finally ready to depart for London, he tells Joe that he "wished to walk away all alone" because he privately fears the "contrast there would be between me and Joe". the arrogant and ungrateful Pip continues to believe that Miss Havisham has chosen him to be the recipient of her money and, hopefully, of Estella's hand in marriage, he also continues to be ashamed of and look down on his past life. On one occasion, Pip receives word that Joe will be visiting London and would like to see him. However, Pip is not at all overjoyed to receive this news. In fact, he looks forward to Joe's visit "with considerable disturbance, some mortification, and a keen sense of incongruity," and he states that he "certainly would have paid money" in order to keep Joe away. Pip is distraught over the prospect of others, especially Bentley Drummle, seeing him with the common blacksmith. After Joe's departure, Pip decides that he should return to the forge, but the next day, he resolves to stay at the Blue Boar Inn, rather than at his old home. His snobbish reasoning is simply, "I should be an inconvenience at Joe's; I was not expected, and my bed would not be ready". Then, Pip is so concerned with gaining Estella's favour that he visits Miss Havisham's home and returns to London while never stopping at the forge.negative attitudes and traits that Pip develops as a result of his unrealistic expectations are portrayed in ways other than his view of his past life. In London, while living as a "gentleman," Pip has trouble managing his new way of life. During a dinner with other gentlemen, Pip has an irrational confrontation with his nemesis, Drummle. After Drummle proposes a toast to Estella, who has allowed "the Spider" to attach himself to her, Pip loses control of his emotions and accuses him of lying. Drummle is then able to provide proof that he has danced with Estella on several occasions, and Pip is forced to apologize for his outrageous actions. However, he and Drummle sit "snorting at one another for an hour" because Pip can "not endure the thought of her stooping to that hound". For many years, Pip had believed that he and Estella were destined to be married, but now his hopes and expectations are just beginning to fade. Pip finally learns that Abel Magwitch, not Miss Havisham, is his benefactor, his unrealistic expectations cease and his genuinely good nature begins to overcome the negative traits that he had developed. Also, he realizes that he was at fault for his non-realistic hopes. During a visit to the Satis House, Pip is able to hold no harsh feelings toward Miss Havisham for the misfortunes of his life. He refuses her offer to financially compensate him for his unhappy life, and instead, he requests that she provide aid to Herbert's business situation. Then, he confesses that he can forgive her. Later, Pip revisits Miss Havisham's room to check on her and finds that she had been too close to the fire, as her aged garments are ignited in flames. Pip immediately risks his own life to save the old woman. She receives serious burns and nerve damage, but she remains alive. Pip is also seriously burned. 's positive characteristics are also evident in his treatment of his benefactor, the convict Magwitch. Initially after the revelation, Pip's reaction had been one of shock, disbelief, and even repugnance. However, he realizes and somewhat appreciates that Magwitch had tried to greatly repay him for the practically insignificant favour that Pip had provided for the convict as a child. Over time, Pip's hard feelings toward his benefactor fade, and at one point he confesses that Magwitch "was softened indefinably, for I could not have said how, and could never afterwards recall how when I tried, but certainly". As he had done while saving Miss Havisham, Pip puts himself through great personal risks and inconveniences to save Magwitch. He is unsuccessful in fleeing the country with Magwitch, but his caring and devotion for the kind convict are unwavering, even though he will not receive any money after Magwitch's death. Every day, Pip visits him in the infirmary in efforts to comfort Magwitch and to make the prisoner's last days as peaceful as possible. Pip believes that his visits are somewhat cheering to Magwitch, and he goes to the infirmary every day until the convict's tranquil death which is almost a blessing. as Pip's feelings toward Magwitch soften, so does his attitude toward his old life after the burden of his expectations is lifted. Soon after Magwitch dies, Pip becomes seriously ill. When he recovers, he learns that Joe had travelled to London to care for him. As he continues to nurse Pip back to good health, Joe remains formal and awkward around Pip, as he had acted while visiting Pip in London several years earlier. On the other hand, Pip begins to feel as if he had never left the forge. When Joe unexpectedly leaves London to return to the forge, Pip follows him as soon as he is physically able. At the forge, Pip no longer shows any feelings of shame or arrogance because he is now content and cheerful in his old surroundings. the conclusion of Great Expectations, the reader most likely finds Pip's fate acceptable and enjoyable. Earlier in his life, he had changed from an innocent, caring boy into an arrogant young man as a result of his non-realistic hopes and expectations. However, when those expectations come to an end, so do his undesirable traits, as he is shown to be a truly good-natured person. Therefore, it is fitting that, in both of Dickens' final episodes, Pip is happy and content with his life.
As opponents of symbolists acted акмеисты (from греч. «акме» the higher degree something, blossoming force). They denied mystical aspirations of symbolists, proclaimed self-value of a real life, urged to return to words their primary sense, having released from symbolical interpretation. The basic criterion of an estimation of creativity for акмеистов (N.S.Gumilev, A.A.Ahmatova, O.E.Mandelshtam) was faultless aesthetic taste, beauty and an art word And formalists clearly and accurately declared, that their morphological method of the analysis of art has arisen for studying of artistry of art, i.e. for revealing of its aesthetic qualities. They have been convinced, that» литературность»,» poetry», i.e. the art essence of a work of art can be revealed only by the morphological analysis of the work of art, instead of that, «reflex ion» of that it is, who and under what conditions has created it, as it influences the recipient what has social, cultural, etc. value. Terms a material became the main things in them категориальном the device (everything of what the artist does product concerned it: a word, language in its ordinary use, thought, feelings, events, etc.) and the form (that the artist in the course of creativity gives to a material). Product was called as a thing for it in understanding of formalists was not created or created as the classical aesthetics believed, but became by means of system of receptions.
Начало монолога «To be or not to be» переводится как «Быть или не быть» у М. Вронченко и «Жить или не жить» у П. Каншина. Все последующие изменения выделены в текстах оригинала и переводов подчёркиванием. Скорее всего, П. Каншин выбрал такой перевод просто потому, что ему хотелось выделиться из «толпы» многочисленных переводчиков монолога, показав свою изобретательность с помощью такого интересного варианта перевода. Ведь в действительности Гамлет в оригинале не рассуждал о жизни и смерти, он просто рассуждал и пытался найти подсказку, что делать дальше, действовать или не действовать. Фраза «The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune» переводится буквально как «удары и стрелы жестокой фортуны». М. Вронченко перевёл это так: «удары стрел враждующей фортуны», в то время как у П. Каншина это «злобные удары обидчицы-судьбы». Во втором переводе эпитеты усиливают стилистический эффект, чего нет у Шекспира. То есть опять второй автор перевёл всё по-своему. 4-я строка монолога Гамлета следующая: «Or to take arms against a sea of troubles», то есть Гамлет колеблется в выборе, одной из альтернатив является восстание против бесчисленных бед. М.П. Вронченко так и пишет: «Или восстать противу моря бедствий», в то время как П.А. Каншин ещё не определился со словом, не знает, что лучше: «вооружиться против моря бед» или «восстать», поэтому в своём переводе он употребляет оба сказуемых, что создаёт некую перегруженность текста. Далее Гамлет противопоставляет два состояния: смерть и сон и в этом случае для него ближе сон, и он выбирает эту альтернативу: «To die, to sleep To sleep!». Пример буквального перевода «Умереть уснуть. Уснуть». То есть М.П. Вронченко выполнил буквальный перевод, лишь несколько смягчив сильные эмоции, выраженные восклицательным знаком. Противопоставление и выбор, сделанный героем, сохраняются. Вольный перевод проще: «Умереть, уснуть». Простое перечисление действий не отражает трудный выбор Гамлета в оригинале, что делает этот перевод довольно вольным. В строке «When we have shuffled off this mortal coil» присутствуют слова, которые невозможно перевести без контекста метафоры: mortal «мертвый», coil «узел». Это предложение может быть переведено как «когда мы стряхнем этот смертельный узел». М. Вронченко даёт следующий эквивалент: «Когда мятежную мы свергнем бренность», у П. Каншина «когда мы уже сбросили с себя все земные тревоги». Первый перевод ближе к оригиналу, он в полной мере воссоздаёт метафору Шекспира. В конце монолога, когда Гамлет обращается к нимфе, с тем чтобы она в своих молитвах помянула его грехи, мы читаем такую заключительную строку:
«Ложные друзья переводчика», констатирует В.В. Акуленко [Акуленко: 14], вводят в заблуждение не только начинающих переводчиков, но и опытных мастеров. В действительности, как отмечают многие исследователи этой лексической категории, «ложные друзья переводчика» способны вводить в заблуждение не только людей, начинающих изучение языка и плохо владеющих им. Также опасно это языковое явление и для лиц, уверенно и практически удовлетворительно пользующихся иностранным языком, и даже иногда для специалистов-филологов (в том числе лексикографов, переводчиков-профессионалов, преподавателей). Так возникают многочисленные заблуждения, которые направляют переводчика в семантические кальки и случаи нарушений лексической сочетаемости или стилистического согласования не только в процессах пользования иностранной речью, но и при переводах на родной язык. Смысловая структура высказывания кажется переводчику вполне очевидной, но на самом деле оно может иметь совсем иное содержание. Обнаруживается, что английское высказывание специально направляет переводчика в ложном направлении. Возьмём простую английскую поговорку: It is a long lane that has no turning. Казалось бы, на русский язык она переводится дословно: «Это длинная дорога, которая никуда не сворачивает». Но этот простой перевод оказывается «ложным другом». Англичанин таким странным для русского переводчика образом выражает совсем другую мысль: «Дорога, которая нигде не сворачивает, была бы такой длинной, что и существовать не может». Аналогичным образом направляет переводчика по ложному пути и другая английская поговорка: It is a good horse that never stumbles. На первый раз взгляд, перевод элементарен: «Это хороший конь, который никогда не споткнётся». На самом деле смысл здесь таков: конь, который никогда не спотыкается, должен быть таким хорошим, что подобных коней вообще не бывает. При этом нельзя считать, что любые ошибки этого рода свидетельствуют о недостаточном владении чужим языком или о небрежности говорящего. Как признаётся в современной теоретической лингвистике, владение вторым языком в большинстве случаев не бывает вполне безукоризненным, а равно свободное абсолютно правильное параллельное использование двух языков является лишь теоретически допустимой абстракцией. Отсюда следует, что подавляющее большинство людей, знающих языки, может в различной степени допускать ошибки в словоупотреблении и переводе. И именно потребности практики перевода обуславливают исследования данного явления. Особенно это актуально для устного перевода, при котором очень важным навыком профессионального переводчика является навык переключения с одного языка на другой. Одной из закономерностей функционирования этого навыка является то, что навык переключения отдаёт предпочтение формально-знаковым связям. Имеются в виду прямые связи между эквивалентами двух языков при переводе без идентификации денотата (ситуации). Эта закономерность приводит к парадоксальному выводу, что смысловой анализ, который необходим для избегания ошибок в явлении «ложных друзей переводчика», становится фактором, тормозящим функционирование навыка переключения. В этом заключается одно из противоречий деятельности устного переводчика. Отказ в целом ряде случаев от денотативных связей (смысловой анализ) повышает эффективность функционирования навыка переключения, но игнорирование денотата приводит к таким ошибкам, как буквализмы.
В следующей части статьи Фортунатов знакомит нас с формами отдельных полных слов. Учение о формах языка образует отдел языкознания - грамматику. Отсюда следует, что формы языка представляют собой грамматические факты языка, а различия слов в формах - грамматические различия слов. Формой отдельных слов называется способность отдельных слов выделять из себя для сознания говорящих формальную и основную принадлежность слова. Автор отмечает, что формальная принадлежность слова образует данное слово, как видоизменение другого слова, имеющего ту же основную принадлежность с другой формальной принадлежностью (стр. 137) . Формами полных слов являются различия полных слов, образуемые различиями в их формальных принадлежностях. Основа слова - основная принадлежность слова в форме слова. Для того, чтобы в слове выделялась для сознания говорящих известная принадлежность звуковой стороны слова в значении формальной принадлежности этого слова, требуется, чтобы та же принадлежность звуковой стороны и с тем же значением была созноваема говорящими и в других словах. Учёный делает вывод о том, что всякая форма в слове является общею для слов с различными основами и всякая форма в слове предполагает существование другой формы, с другой формальной принадлежностью, но с теми же основами слов (стр.137). Формальные принадлежности слов в их формах могут быть не только положительными, но и отрицательными. Фортунатов показывает на примере слов-предложений светает, морозит, где предмет мысли, образующий подлежащее, обозначен в самом глаголе.
Additionally both heroes have an encounter with a character from hell. Beowulf dives into the lake (personification of hell) where Grendels mother is waiting to attack. He cannot cut her with his sword, so he tosses it away and finds a larger sword killing Grendels mother by cutting her head off. He sees Grendel dead body nearby and cuts off his head as a trophy and return to Denmark (pg. 61, 1356-84). This expresses an important virtue, loyalty. Redcrosse Knight encounters Lucifera (Queen of Hell) and the parade of vices. He has been weakened by his visit to the House of Pride. Although he had the instinctive good sense to flee from that castle, his conscience is still at work. This failure leads him near death in the dungeon of Orgoglio, a giant that represents godless pride. Arthur (represents magnificence) comes along and helps Redcrosse rise up from his lowest state (Canto 7). Redcrosse also defeats the dragon. Just as Christ descended to hell to defeat Satan, Redcrosse had to enter the hellish mouth of the dragon to finally kill it. He is not victorious alone he is saved twice by very timely help. The Well of Life and The Tree of Life, both represents the grace that God gives to mankind, which aids Christian in danger of falling prey to sin (Canto 10). No matter how well equipped or prepared a Christian is, he is no match for sin and death without the underserved grace of God. Thus the message about the Christian life is one of humility; we can never take the credit for Gods victory.
My style and the range of clothes that I have are defined by the activities I engage in. Work occupies most of my time and therefore most of the clothes that I have corresponds with the dress code, registered in the policy of our company. According to the dress code, an employee is not allowed to wear certain items of clothing to work. For example, men are supposed to wear ties and business suits, and nobody is allowed to wear jeans, except on Fridays. Womens clothes are not supposed to be skin-tight, too short and too open. All of the shirts are supposed to have collars. Clothes also cant be too bright, the colors should correspond to the corporate colors dark blue and white.
It was the claim of extreme nominalists that the names were just sounds, that we could call one and the same thing quite opposite names, and it would not change anything in its essence. It very well can be so, but in the naming things we also do something to ourselves, to our understanding of the physical nature of the things. Is there really man or woman, masterpiece, junk, good guy, bad guy, traitor, falsifier, guilty, innocent? Or all those words are just “utterances”? Is there some reality behind the word mother, or John can be your mother if the court rules so? Abelard understood that there is some medium between things and names which is not the name and not the thing it signifies, and still to keep the language meaningful we must use certain words which point to that medium in order to form meaningful concepts in our minds. Without this physics would not be possible as well as any science and language itself. That is because of that medium it is possible to translate from one language to another. Without this there would be no dictionaries, and to understand Greek or Latin would be impossible. If you call a nominalist a genius, he will be pleased, and if you call him a fool he will likely to get offended. But why, if it is true what he is teaching? Words do signify something about physical world! The words we use to describe physical objects are symbols of meaningful concepts which we form about those things in our minds. They are mental in nature, but they necessarily belong to those particulars. For Abelard this was easy to see and demonstrate. But what about the names which do not point to particulars? There were three questions, which Peter Abelard and Porphyry before him asked: (1) whether genera and species subsist or are placed only in understanding; (2) if they subsist, whether they are corporeal or incorporeal; (3) whether they are separated from sensibles or are placed in sensibles. Also there was the forth question added by Abelard, whether genera and species must refer to something or whether, if their normal referents are destroyed, these universals could consist of mere meaning of the concept.
most popular spirits in Ireland are Guinness and Whiskey. Ireland has its own whiskey. The Irish learned to make whiskey from monks. They came to Ireland from the continent of Europe in the fifth and sixth centuries. They knew a lot about the way to make spirits. Irish whiskey is made differently from Scotch whisky. It is also usually spelled differently - Scotch whisky has no «e». Irish whiskey tastes lighter and smoother than Scotch whisky. Just now more people in the world drink Scotch whiskey. But some people like Scotch whisky and some like Irish whiskey. In the American Civil War someone said to President Lincoln that General Grant was drinking too much Irish whiskey. Lincoln knew that Grant was a good general, and he knew that Irish whiskey was a good drink. So Lincoln's answer was: «Find out the make of General Grant's whiskey. Then give it to the other generals».popular spirit is Guinness. It's a kind of beer. Guinness is made from barley, hops, yeast and water. Everything in it is quite natural; there are no chemicals. The Irish have made or «brewed» it in Dublin since 1759. The Guinness brewery in Dublin is bigger than any other brewery in Europe. Today there are also Guinness breweries in Britain, Nigeria, Malaysia. People drink more than seven million glasses of Guinness every day around the world.
From 2005, there will be a new European Capital of Culture every year. This is a revival of the well-known City of Culture programme, which benefited Glasgow so much back in 1990.Far from being just another title; it is an ideal opportunity to celebrate the cultural accomplishments of Europe's great cities and to involve the community as a whole in that celebration. It is also an opportunity for further development. Glasgow experienced substantial economic and social benefits during its period as the City of Culture, both strengthening and promoting its own impressive regeneration. In 2008, the European Capital of Culture will be in the UK and Liverpool is one of the cities bidding for the title. Competition will be fierce, but the title is very much worth the battle, and Liverpool's claim is a very strong one indeed. Our bid team has the support of not just the City Council but also many cultural and business leaders. When the people of Liverpool get behind the bid too, we can and will be the European Capital of Culture in 2008.The benefits of winning the title are quite tangible. It will do so much more than simply throw the spotlight on all of the city's cultural and artistic achievements. The world already knows about the Beatles and our famous football teams. The title will enable us to tell a more complete story, encompassing everything from the Tate in Liverpool to the many events of the Liverpool festivals. Specific benefits to the city will also include local and regional regeneration, increased tourism, greater business activity and an overall increase in cultural activities. Just as importantly, the title will remind everyone in the region - and indeed the country - that Liverpool is very much a city to be proud of.Competition is now under way and the Government will publish a shortlist of candidates in the last quarter of 2002, with the final UK nomination decided in spring of 2003.At that point, the winning city will be able to start using the title European Capital of Culture 2008 and to start preparing in earnest for its year of tenure.
Thus, the less/least-combinations, similar to the more/most-combinations, constitute specific forms of comparison, which may be called forms of "reverse comparison". The two types of forms cannot be syntagmatically combined in one and the same form of the word, which shows the unity of the category of comparison. The whole category includes not three, but five different forms, making up the two series respectively, direct and reverse. Of these, the reverse series of comparison (the reverse superiority degrees) is of far lesser importance than the direct one, which evidently can be explained by semantic reasons. As a matter of fact, it is more natural to follow the direct model of comparison based on the principle of addition of qualitative quantities than on the reverse model of comparison based on the principle of subtraction of qualitative quantities, since subtraction in general is a far more abstract process of mental activity than addition. And, probably, exactly for the same reason the reverse comparatives and superlatives are rivalled in speech by the corresponding negative syntactic constructions.
The subject of our investigation was adjectives. What we have learnt about adjectives is that most English adjectives have comparative and superlative forms. These are generally constructed in one of two ways: either by suffixes (big, bigger, biggest) or by the use of the grammatical particles more and most. We have investigatedthat some adjectives have suppletive forms in their comparison, such as good, better, best. Comparative and superlative forms apply only to the base form of the adjective, so that duplicate forms like most biggest or worser are nonstandard (although lesser is sometimes permitted as a variant of less). A few adjectives have no comparative but a superlative with -most: uppermost, westernmost, etc. Also it has its own degrees, such as comparison, etc. Those such as male, female, extant and extinct which express "absolute" qualities do not admit comparisons: one animal cannot be more extinct than another. Similarly in a planktonic organism the adjective planktonic simply means plankton-type; there are no degrees or grades of planktonic. Other cases are more debatable. Grammatical prescriptivists frequently object to phrases such as more perfect on the grounds that something either is perfect or it is not. However, many speakers of English accept the phrase as meaning more nearly perfect. An adjective that causes particular controversy in this respect is unique. The formulations more unique and most unique are guaranteed to raise the hackles of purists. Which English adjectives are compared by -er/-est and which by more/most is a complex matter of English idiom. Generally, shorter adjectives (including most monosyllabic adjectives), Anglo-Saxon words, and shorter, fully domesticated French words (e.g. noble) use the suffixes -er/-est. Adjectives with two syllables vary. Some take either form, and the situation determines the usage. For example, one will see commoner and more common, depending on which sounds better in the context. Two-syllable adjectives that end in the sound [i], most often spelled with y, generally take -er/-est, e.g., pretty: prettier: prettiest. It was pleasant to investigate adjectives and we think that it is not the end of its investigation. We will continue this theme on our diploma work. Thank you for spending time on reading our course work!
The production of grain and oilseed crops is dominated by large agricultural enterprises that were established when Ukraines agricultural sector was restructured in April, 2000. (In contrast, nearly 90 percent of the country's vegetables and virtually all of the potatoes are grown on private household plots.) State and collective farms were dismantled and farm property was divided among the farm workers in the form of land shares. Most new shareholders leased their land back to newly-formed private agricultural associations, under the leadership of a director who was frequently, but not always, the manager of the former State farm. Consolidation of small farms into larger and more viable enterprises has been the prevailing trend, similar to what took place in Russia several years earlier. (For a brief discussion of Ukraines agricultural restructuring, see June 2001 report.) The conversion to a more market-oriented environment has progressed relatively well according to most observers. Many farms are succeeding, under shrewd leadership, in spite of fluctuating grain prices and constraints on the availability of credit. The transition of Ukraine's agricultural sector from a command economy to a more market-oriented system has introduced the element of fiscal responsibility, and farm managers are striving to make their enterprises as efficient as possible. Decisions on crop selection, fertilizer application, harvest method, grain storage, and all other aspects of farm management are made with an eye toward boosting farm profit. Ukraine agriculture is going through a winnowing process whereby unprofitable, usually smaller farms will either collapse or join more successful farms.
Among many problems which are actual today for our society, the problem of alcoholism is on one of the first places. The damage which this trouble makes to separate people, to families, collectives and all society as a whole is too great. Alcohol consumption in Kazakhstan is high as for soft alcohol drinks as beer and wine as for strong alcohol drinks such as vodka and whisky. In Kazakhstan consumption of alcohol drinks is increasing but middle degree of consumed alcohol drinks is decreasing. Increased number of consumed soft alcohol drinks is because of growing interest of underage population in alcohol; it could be explained by availability, accessibility and advertisement, that provokes young population to buy and drink this beverages, that is why population now have alcoholics among children. According to official representative of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Kazakhstan Kairat Barmakov, because of unlimited realization of alcoholic production, each third murder in the country is made under alcohol condition. Also drinking of alcohol drinks in youth age could be reflected in children psychology. Alcohol consumption is strongly reflected on peoples reproductive system, one of the main reasons of mens infertility is alcohol. In a country with insufficient demographic situation alcohol consumption problem should be observed in different way, so that our future generation will be healthy productive and normally up bring. Alcohol affects every organ in the body. The problem of alcohol consumption has a place in many post soviet countries and the reason is the “revolution” that happened in several month after Mr. Gorbachev became the head of “CK”, this situation made lots of people unemployed or with any perception of even tomorrow day. There are a lot of professionals who were working in different areas of this big country, who then became alcohol addicted, which then led to scarceness of qualified workers. Alcohol also is the result of an increased monetary losses because of accidents connected with the use of alcohol on a workplace, as well as reduction of work capacity because of «pohmelniy sindrom», as example to take surgeon before operation, or flight, train operation manager which could lead to real disaster. Treating of such a disease as alcohol addiction is very important issue for whole nation and also for Health Ministry of Kazakhstan. Not less serious problem is represented with a female alcoholism, and that more and more women becoming alcohol addicted at young age and it is especially terrible. It fatally affects not only on their health, but also on health of posterity. Thus treatment of a female alcoholism is interfaced to special complexities which are connected with features of female physiology and psychology. Moreover experts of National Cancer Institute, have established, that alcohol is the reason for 70 % of cases of development of the most widespread type of a cancer of a breast. 184 thousand women of the post climacteric period took part in research during seven years, which shows that those women who drinks a glass of alcohol per day are risking develop cancer by 7%. Those who used to drink two glasses of alcohol increase the risk by 32%. Drinking alcohol increases the risk of cancers of the mouth, esophagus, pharynx, larynx, and liver in men and women, and of breast cancer in women. In general, these risks increase after about one daily drink for women and two daily drinks for men. Another research experiment; it was found out that children of mothers abusing alcoholic drinks, cannot accept fast decisions and actively operate in unfamiliar situation. Researchers from scientific research institute of pharmacology of the Russian academy of medical sciences make female rats drank from 1-th pregnancy till 20-th day. Then studied mental abilities of their children when those became adults that how they made their decision. Treatment of alcoholism nowadays is carried out by many experts, firms and clinics. But not all distant methods and means of treatment of alcoholism can guarantee result. The condition of public hospitals of this sphere in Kazakhstan could be softly called as very bad, there is no rehabilitation centers where people could get their treatment and period of relaxing, but they get “Narkodispanser” with awful conditions, food, personnel and may be harmful and cheap drugs. As for private hospitals it is Ok, tidy, light rooms, tasty food different types of methodologies of treatment, but also it cost a lot, not for ordinary people. The laws of republic of Kazakhstan protects children from alcohol consumption “Article 37. Protection of the child against harmful influence of alcoholic production and tobacco products
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