Экономика

  • 81. Effects of deflation
    Информация

    If ideology can blind policymakers to introducing necessary reforms then the second lesson from history is that, once entrenched, expectations of deflation may be difficult to reverse. The occasional fall in aggregate prices is unlikely to significantly affect longer-term expectations of inflation. This is especially true if the monetary authority is independent from political control, and if the central bank is required to meet some kind of inflation objective. Indeed, many analysts have repeatedly suggested the need to introduce an inflation target for Japan. While the Japanese have responded by stating that inflation targeting alone is incapable of helping the economy escape from deflation, the Bank of Japan's stubborn refusal to adopt such a monetary policy strategy signals an unwillingness to commit to a different monetary policy strategy. Hence, expectations are even more unlikely to be influenced by other policies ostensibly meant to reverse the course of Japanese prices. The Federal Reserve, of course, does not have a formal inflation target but has repeatedly stated that its policies are meant to control inflation within a 0-3% band. Whether formal versus informal inflation targets represent substantially different monetary policy strategies continues to be debated, though the growing popularity of this type of monetary policy strategy suggests that it greatly assists in anchoring expectations of inflation.

  • 82. Efficiency of economic safety of the coal companies and population of coal regions
    Статья

    To the present time and without that the low level of technical and technological safety of the coal enterprises has conceded the priority to observance of the new requirements of socio economic safety of the coal companies, as independent legal persons, and population of coal regions, which has appeared the hostage of the financial crisis smoothly passing in economic and system crisis of the usual attitudes(relations) in a society(community). avoid negative consequences proceeding in real sector of economy and in financial sphere of activity, despite of significant injections from the earlier saved resources of fund, in process of his(its) exhaustion in the nearest prospect down to symbolical 2017 (by century of October revolution) will hardly be presented possible(probable) on a lot of the following objective and subjective reasons and their negative consequences. , to stop growth of unemployment in branch and in the country as a whole, despite of effort of the appropriate administrative structures on management of economic activity at all levels of management of economy, it was not possible, that was obvious right at the beginning in real sector. Opposite(on the contrary) only within 2010 the quantity(amount) of the unemployed only on the official data has increased more than on 1200 thousand the man, having reached(achieved) a level 8,9 % from the able-bodied population of the country, not considering the considerably increased inflow from near foreign countries. Difficultly even to itself to present, when complete forces the healthy man, the father of one or two children having on the contents of the parents and wife, loses for the reasons, independent of him,(it,) job as a unique(sole) source of existence and by virtue of these circumstances is compelled to sell the habitation and everything, that in him is, that any time to support the family, and then becomes or criminal as the unemployment benefit does not suffice even on payment ЖКХ, and on a feed(meal), the footwear and clothes does not remain practically anything. And such helpless on fault of the state of the people with each year becomes ever more and more. The state bodies of authorities admitting a high level of unemployment have no any moral right on preservation of the authority, therefore owe or accept urgent and resolute measures on its(her) liquidation, or leave in a resignation and concede the place to anothers, more qualified, ideologically sustained and morally steady experts capable to organize job in the country so that to involve resolutely all basic resources in the country, first of all human, natural, industrial both non-productive basic and circulating capitals for release of commodity production in volumes and quality ensuring need(requirement) of all population of the country. The economists of many countries of the world already for a long time and repeatedly enough is proved asserted(approved), that the presence even of insignificant unemployment speaks about inability and the state to operate economy of the country. And in it our state is high time and his(its) administrative structures with Olympic calmness look at mass growing disaster of a significant part of the population and prepare the new reports and messages to the people about growing well-being of a nation. That can be even worse, than growing rate of unemployment and huge weight of a manpower of the country in its(her) base branches and regions ensuring an industry and the population by a heat, light, products of a feed(meal), footwear, clothes, habitation, home appliances, electrical energy both other goods and services ensuring normal conditions of ability to live of the population.the country, richest natural resources and huge means of manufacture created per the previous centuries to admit(allow) highest in the world a rate of unemployment is it is necessary to note as outstanding "achievement" in sphere of management of a national economy. Thus it is necessary to remind, that who has not tested on itself of a rule (situation) of the unemployed, that never will understand of all tragedy of the usual hardest rule(situation) in economy and in social sphere of ability to live of coal and other industrial regions of the country. Thus also occurs almost not appreciable on the first sight (especially on the part of elite layers of the society(community) which has secured the material rule(situation) at the expense of assignment of property - of the deputies, senators, officials, magnates and other supplied layers of the population, so-called, transition from manufacture to a manpower and population - last source of preservation of ability to live in the country. Unless it is possible to close eyes and to not see that after growth of unemployment by higher rates the criminality, including criminal, mass and teenage grows. A society(community), in which crime rate and the quantity(amount) of the persons ready to make of a crime exceeds an allowable limit of a parity(ratio) of criminals and ready to their fulfillments with a level of the legislative citizens itself on economic, moral and intellectual. And unless such tendency of development and material rule (situation) in the country is not practical realization of the widely known program of the former director ЦРУ and also in the recent past of the former prime minister of Great Britain (former state secretary of USA population, calling for reduction, in Russia by 2050 up to 50 ml. The man, including radical Russian - up to 15 ml. The man for service of needs(requirements) of the American economy). And how to coordinate ideology of aggressive circles of USA and world (global) elite to ideology in the Russian society(community).past 20 years of reforming of economy and public life in Russia already need(requirement) and necessity for declaration for a long time has ripened as priority national idea maintenance in the prime order of health, safety and well-being of a nation in a harmonious and close combination to the further development of intelligence (first of all professional trainings) and a nation, meaning under first of all education, preservation and development of such moral qualities as validity, honesty, decency, respect for work (main source of preservation of a nation), and also to the old men, women and children. Already enough has ripened and it is time to realize, to understand and to accept to execution(performance) realization real and already of operative measures on an output(exit) from financial, economic and social - political crisis, so is unexpected (in spheres of management of the country and regions) struck economy of our country, in spite of the fact that there are a lot of domestic economists convincingly enough and is proved predicted inevitability of approach of crisis in USA and then in other countries, not excluding and Russia. Truly prophets no in the fatherland and principle - wanted as better, and has left as always, became the main principle of management of economic safety in the country. , filled notorious (difference) between a real rate of inflation and officially in 2008, 2009 and 2010 also appreciably has grown and has reached(achieved) a marginal level, which excess is inadmissible, differently can result to more, than unpredictable consequences. misunderstanding of danger of steady growth of inflation in a combination to preservation of a high level of unemployment and latent growth from such symbiosis of social intensity and mass criminality is even worse, than to not pay attention to a bomb of the slowed down action ready to blow up in any (more often in most unpredictable) the moment is like of the declaration, incorporated still(even) in 1918, of a principle of self-determination of nations. The specified self-determination is really unexpected in 1990 has resulted in disintegration powerful on fine splinters, which consequences we and are compelled now to experience and to reflect on foggy and not iridescent prospects in nearest and long-term future. The truth prospects removed future(next) recently were a little improved at the expense of increase of term of powers of an elected management(manual) of the country from four till six years, but you see even with multiplication of this term to two terms is only drop in the sea, which at all does not allow even to dream of far prospects. Why at once to not establish terms of performance of high duties to the deputies and management(manual) of the country at once of years as it already was in former times, when corrected(ruled) till 20-30 of years and more. Corrected by the country and rather successfully 34 years, Peter? - 43 years are even more successful. So why to not adopt instructive experience last for our present time and future, you see then there would be a time and on a management(manual) of the country and its(her) economy, and not just on actually continuously being engaged in pre-election technologies and realization them in ours life. It is not necessary to overlook(forget) thus, that the country deprived of prospect or on a place, when other countries such as China and other Asian countries, and also European and is prompt forward to the planned purposes, or will be rolled to general(common) and irreversible crisis. , the further growth not only volumes, but also rates of a social stratification in a society(community) inevitably guarantees dangerous rapprochement of a risky rate of unemployment both growing number of the poor and poor population, first of all pensioners on the old age prematurely sent on so-called deserved rest (in spite of the fact that the majority of them would continue to work and to benefit a society(community) and profit to the new proprietors), invalids steadily growing number of elements, including for which the time of departure of short punishments became original rates of increase of thieves' and criminal qualification and growth of specialization in this sphere. The consequences of such symbiosis are even worse and more dangerously, than cocktail. Because the merge of poverty and unemployment with fall of morals and morals does not summarize negative consequences, and multiplies them.- fourth, the fall of intelligence and morals of growing up generation in dependence on a steadily growing level, foul language, smoking and other forms of moral fall and physical exhaustion inevitably and steadily conducts to spiritual, intellectual and physical backwardness of a nation annually updated on more, than one million young of the citizens, which most part already never can and will not work and to be useful to a society(community). And this prospect already not with each year, and literally with each quarter from far prospect steadily comes nearer to the nearest future and realization of the program, that requires(demands) acceptance of urgent and resolute actions on of fall of morals and morals, and, main, physical exhaustion and intellectual of growing up generation and more and more appreciable decrease(reduction) of a material rule(situation) almost half of population of the country which has been lead up to poverty and poverty. to estimate a degree both depth of a vital and spiritual level of a nation it is necessary to develop methodology and technique of an estimation of efficiency of the usual economic safety of ability to live of a nation for the present did not become irrevocably late. In these purposes it is necessary to develop criteria of an estimation of size of a level of economic safety of ability to live of a nation in coordination with the social standards, including with a working technique of account of a minimum level of wages, minimal of a level (not only food, but also in view of satisfaction of a steadily growing level of needs(requirements) in footwear, clothes, other subjects of the industrial goods, goods of cultural - household purpose(appointment), normative maintenance by qualitative and modern habitation, preservation and development of a non-productive social infrastructure of miner's regions in places of mass residing of miner's families etc., Which now or is not developed and for this reason does not work, or is under a signature stamp of extreme privacy and is latent from a public not only in a mass seal, but even and in the Internet). To the present time there was such situation, that remained anything more confidential, than material, intellectual and spiritual level of the population and ruling layer in a society (community). Even wages working, employee and administrative board at the enterprises, in cooperative and public organizations and in official bodies began to give out under the separate pay sheets to hide a growing difference in the incomes of the hired workers on the one hand both new proprietors and administration - with another. Such differentiation in a material rule (situation) of the population of the country inevitably conducts to growth of an inequality and intensity in public development, which approach of chronic hatred of bottoms with known consequences of social shocks inevitably follows. Whether so costs (stands) after the short period boundless above deceived by pleasures from the achieved results to try even to comprehend results of reorganization of the public attitudes(relations) and prospects of consequences of a growing inequality in a society(community). You see after a no controllable and boundless material inequality inevitably arises and the alienation and inequality moral, moral and ideological grows. Even already has arisen and language of dialogue in layers of new Russian and not Russian proprietors, businessmen, officials, deputies and businessmen functions new, so-called, involved on criminal and foul language. specified attributes as convincingly enough show sticking out from within decomposition in the top layers new, component to the present time already about 15-20 % from an aggregate number of the population of the country, still approximately 25-30 % of an average layers, and other population remained in poverty and poverty. Unless it now is the purpose of development of our society (community). Unless injurious operation of natural resources and export abroad of most valuable of them - petroleum, gas, diamonds, gold, color and black metals raw wood, and also boundless operation of a manpower, freezing of wages, mass dismissal of the most qualified staff simultaneously with liquidation of craft schools, schools ФЗО, average special establishments, public health services, science and the educations can apply be by national idea, purpose and main task of development of our society(community) while increase of well-being, of health and safety of a nation more and more and is more removed on a background. this reason the question on an estimation of efficiency of economic safety already now is extreme urgent and extremely important in all branches national (national economy already practically remained) facilities (economy) of the country. In what essence of economic strategy of new managing structures - in that to ensure (supply) the maximal profit to the new proprietors and at the expense of the maximal operation of a manpower and them together with the pensioners and invalids, and also production and sale abroad of most valuable natural resources in indissoluble communication(connection) with growth of corruption and criminality. But you see such simultaneously with it inevitably results in uttermost of intelligence and a nation, which consequences on some orders will be more appreciable, than famous waves in economic sphere. But in this case general(common) economic and spiritual crisis from a long-term future by rates exceeding a gain of inflation, promptly comes nearer to the nearest future and already begins to bite the current condition of an economic situation of basic weight of the population of the country. criteria it is necessary to estimate efficiency of economic safety of the country and its(her) population by. It is obvious, that first of all incomes of the citizens can not exceed, especially essentially exceed, difference in the intellectual, physical and professional acquired and inherent qualities and abilities. The excessive inequality of the citizens who have arisen because of illegally acquired state and the property by gamble by separate groups of "comrades" has resulted not only in an inconceivable stratification of a society(community) on poor and rich (that certainly and was an overall objective of "reforms"), but also has resulted in sharp fall of morals and morals, and after this also of intellectual level new, sharp fall and mass liquidation of scientific researches - this major factor of development of economic potential of the country. In this connection the conversations on modernization of industrial manufacture remain only conversations, as any resolute economic measures is not accepted and there is no hope, especially of reliance, that they will be carried out. Therefore quite reasonably there is a fair question - criterion by criteria, and what concrete measures can deduce (remove) the country from the current crisis and to prevent approaching general (common) crisis, or else of all economic and political system in the country. this connection it is necessary to consider and to accept prime steps in a direction of alignment of the usual skews and not so much in break of the incomes between elite and basic weight of the population, how much in ordering first of all in financial and simultaneously with it in economic sphere of activity at the expense of realization of the following concrete measures:nationalization of banks with simultaneous transferring of accounting services, which now are in one with the proprietors and administration of the enterprises, from the companies and enterprises is direct in state banks and payment of their work at the expense of the state, instead of at the expense of the incomes of the enterprises and proprietors, which they serve. The independence of financial and accounting services of administration both new owners of the enterprises and companies (switching ОАО, ЗАО, ООО and other structural divisions) should be guaranteed legislatively and is carried out. The state should not depend on banks and at each financial failure of commercial banks. Only in this case state bodies of authority will receive real levers of management of economy in the country and in its (her) regions and the transparent state politics in economic and industrial spheres of activity can be supplied;nationalization of the enterprises of base and key branches, including all natural monopolies first of all engaged in injurious operation of natural resources with the purposes of export all most valuable natural and of raw material in foreign countries and reception at the expense of it vast, that derivates not only poverty and poverty of the population, but also results in aspirations on satisfaction of the inconceivable before perverted needs(requirements) of the new employers. The mass and unattended export of the capital abroad, first of all in USA, under doubtful percents(interests) instead of modernization, modernization and reconstruction of the working enterprises has turned from single measures to the steady tendency of development of economy in foreign countries to the detriment of domestic economy; and realization in the urgent order of the branch and state programs on liquidation of unemployment at the expense of restoration of the destroyed domestic manufacture and creation of the new enterprises on a modern technological level so that within 3-4 years to exclude completely delivery of the import goods and foodstuffs, which quality does not answer needs(requirements) of the population. In essence, our foreign "friends" dump(reset) to us all that production, which has ceased to be in demand in their countries because of the delayed terms of a storage, and also technically and technologically out-of-date with the large constructive lacks and made from poor-quality raw material;restoration liquidated craft, railway, miner's, building and other professional direction of schools and average special educational institutions, and also research organizations, which bring as a result of their introduction in manufacture huge profit, not commensurable with the incomes of an investment of the investments even in the most effective projects;attitude(relation) to a science, public health services and education as to spheres of commercial activity requires(demands) radical change, as the oath is not compatible to treatment for money, and quality of treatment depending on thickness of a purse of the patient not only is not humane, but also causes steady potential neglect to the honor and hardworking citizens not capable to give of a bribe (and not only by the material opportunities, but also from moral principles) on the one hand and accordingly plain and inadequate answer-back negative reaction of the population to corruption and extortion. And a science directly conducts to complete loss of objectivity of results of scientific researches and preparation of conclusions in conformity with wishes of the customers and sponsors. In sphere of education already for a long time children of the rich parents are in a privileged rule (situation), first of all at an estimation of knowledge, as results knowledge of such youngs. Here it is necessary to note an obviously primitive rating scale, is especial in a higher school, where from five numbers two are actually involved only (4 numbers and 5 numbers) and partially 3 numbers, which presence is more, than in two subjects results in deprivation of the grant, owing to what such estimation becomes the large rarity. Is asked why instead of such clumsy system of an estimation of knowledge of the students and schoolboys to not use for a long time system of an estimation of results of economic activity of the industrial enterprises on 100-ball system.short-sightedness preservation of primitive system of payment of habitation and municipal services. After reception of pensions of millions pensioners and other population hurry up in banks to give back almost half of received grant (manual) for given to him(it) (more often poor-quality) service in water supply, water drain, and also other finer charges for export of dust, for the teleaerial, contents of lifts and miscellaneous costs. In these purposes the banks are compelled to employ on job of hundred thousand accounting workers only for performance of this primitive operation. Is asked why to not simplify this primitive circuit and to reduce the sizes of pensions and payment of work by payment of normative habitation and the appropriate sizes (taking into account, that the pensions in Russia are below of a level it be necessary in general to remove(take off) from them this burden, having released(exempted) thus thousand bookkeepers from unnecessary job, the payment of which work is comparable to the sizes of money resources, withdrawn from the population, on these purposes), having saved payment of above permitted standard habitation and municipal services, and also with the purposes of elimination of the not labor incomes at the expense of delivery in rent of habitation (which operation by the tenants as a rule is not paid at all raising thus tariffs for habitation and services), to pass surpluses of habitation at disposal of local municipalities, that will allow substantially to facilitate and, at last, completely to decide(solve) housing problem not waiting of the end of light basically for this reason;parity(ratio) of the manufacturers of commodity production and its(her) consumers steadily grows for the benefit of last instead of steadily being reduced up to an optimum level.for example, in the labor code there is clause 178, in which is spoken, that (during staff redundancies) is paid to the dismissed worker the target grant(manual), and also behind it(him) the average monthly earnings for the period of employment, but not over two months is saved from the date of dismissal (including the target grant(manual)). It would seem to any competent worker clearly, that besides the target grant(manual) as a payment for mental cruelty in connection with violent dismissal and as gratitude for long-term work at the given enterprise, him is still given out bi-monthly earnings for search of job. However, not here that was, the officials at once have grasped the additive in brackets to treat the target grant(manual) as a payment for the first month of search of job. The absurd of such treatment, and after her and failure(refusal) in payment of the target grant(manual), but to prove to the officials limitation of their thinking, when before them the real opportunity to appropriate(give) to itself this grant(manual), is useless. Not everyone will go to prove the correctness in court, where years skill of enrichment at the expense of the injured. It is necessary immediately to clean(remove) the provocative additive in brackets in order to prevent ambiguous interpretation, as it mentions significant weights for a threshold of the native enterprise, especially, if they there have worked not one ten years; trade unions at hiring and dismissal of the workers excludes expediency of their functioning, therefore it is necessary to restore the right of trade union to forbid employment or dismissal of the members of trade union without the consent of general(common) trade-union assembly, and also to restore the rights of trade unions under the control of economic activity of administrations of the enterprises. Besides fiscal payments of member payments at complete of professional unions of the workers of the enterprises and organizations completely loses logic and sense of withdrawal of the specified payments from the workers;an estimated parameter of a level of economic activity for the not clear reasons instead of a standard of well-being of basic weight of the population and pensioners the total parameter is accepted. The scientific economists already for a long time have proved senselessness of an estimation of a level of ability to live of a nation on total parameters, nevertheless most ridiculous and primitive parameters hiding actual successes and failures in development of economy till now are applied;size of pension should be measured not by the intricate circuits with numerous them and actual labor experience multiplied on appropriate branch factor from 1,5 up to 2,5 % from an average level of the salary in the appropriate branch;employment and preservation at job of the persons in the age of more than 48-50 years actually became the large rarity. The new employers (administrative, so-called managers - clumsiest expression from the foreign dictionary) refuse even to consider(examine) a professional level advanced in the age of the persons aspiring to get a job, and the constitution in ignorance. Whether it is time to wake them or to call for the order. A trouble, that there is nobody it to make; a long time already has ripened expediency and industrial necessity instead of 46 existing taxes to enter Uniform at a rate of 25-33 % from the proceeds for realized production with liquidation of tax services and tax inspection under condition of realization of accounts on realization of production through the State Banks, however even the reasoning on this theme in a seal are not supposed. Thus the usual practice in MASS-MEDIA willingly printing everyone the significant fees amazes but for scientific clauses on burning questions from the science officers instead of the deserved fee for the done job the editors, including main, require(demand) an advance payment from the authors, which not always have money even on the transport charges before edition. By unique(sole) surtax to Uniform it would be expedient to enter the parental tax, as in the majority the parents, bringing up children, have appeared now thrown liked smokes, as a result of violent introduction in their consciousness of market ideology excluding moral principles and a duty to the parents; generated in last years, switching and fine, the parties(set) already for a long time do not answer interests neither people, nor the states and should be liquidated as superfluous as well as parliament in such excessively huge quantity(amount) of overwhelming number of the illiterate deputies and senators. At the state and the people can not be of other purposes except for a safety, health and well-being of a nation in a harmonious combination to preservation and further development of intelligence (first of all professional trainings of the staff in various spheres of activity). Institutes with others what for are necessary, including by the purposes, hostile to a society (community), and to express uniform idea of such quantity(amount) at all it is not required, that for the sake of then to contain at the expense of the state budget so much at such slow movement in a uncertain direction without the precise purpose, without a rudder and without "ветрил". Certainly, what is it not complete list of all necessary measures for an output(exit) from crisis, however and realization of this list of measures it is quite enough, that the precise rate on steady progress forward - was designated as it is possible further from that condition of economy, in which have resulted forced "reforms" under the foreign recipes. As Russian king " … at Russia spoke no and never was of the friends except for the army and fleet ". Now it is possible to add still "except for both rocket armies and love to the Native land. Then what for a tail and so low to bow to that already for a long time and steadily degenerates without assistance, and the recent attempts of last president in Staffs(states) remind of a perishing civilization, than revival economy in a fog boundless and schemers, any more one century on work, sweat and blood foreign more. Certainly as well that the performance only one measures from the stated above list of operative measures does not decide (solve) a problem as a whole. The resolute and complex approach and balanced strategy of a conclusion of a national economy from crisis is necessary. Undoubtedly only that a string of a conclusion of the country from crisis is maintenance of economic safety closely connected from technical and technological modernizations, by reconstruction and modernization not only and not there is a lot of technological level of a technological complex, and intellectual and spiritual level of a nation. Therefore role of a science and scientific staff, first of all of advanced age which has reached (achieved) necessary experience in this business, is important and is urgent as never. Yes the mentioned above kind wishes will come true before economic, technical, technological, organizational both social - political general (common) and complete in economy and public life of our country.

  • 83. ERP-система как инструмент развития дистрибьюторского бизнеса
    Информация
  • 84. Euro
    Информация

    2000 г.2001 г.2002г.2003г.2010г.Сценарий 1. ЭВС с дополнительной фискальной консолидацией и реформой рынков трудаЧлены ЭВСРеальный ВВП0.20.91,01,12,9Дефлятор ВВП-0,03-0,7-1,1-1,4-1,9Долгосрочная норма процента0,1-0,1-0,3-0,4---Уровень безработицы-0,2-0,4-0,6-0,8-2,0Общий баланс государственного бюджета (в % ВВП)0,40,911,52,10,8Чистые доходы------0,110,2-1,1Расходы-0,4-0,9-1,4-1,9-1,9Общий государственный долг (в % ВВП)-0,4-1,4-2,7-4,5-12,6Торговый баланс (в млрд. долл. США)-3,513,822,831,627,9Неевропейские страны члены большой семеркиРеальный ВВП-0,1------0,10,1Торговый баланс (в млрд. долл. США)-0,6-16,6-25,5-31,5-31,9Другие индустриальные страныРеальный ВВП-0,10,10,1---0,2Торговый баланс (в млрд. долл. США)-1,0-1,9-2,6-3,5-1,7Развивающиеся страныРеальный ВВП---0,10,20,20,3Торговый баланс (в млрд. долл. США)5,14,75,33,45,7Сценарий 2. ЭВС без дополнительной фискальной консолидацией и без реформы рынков трудаЧлены ЭВСРеальный ВВП0,1-0,3-0,6-0,9-2,5Дефлятор ВВП0,10,30,60,92,3Долгосрочная норма процента0,20,30,40,50,5Уровень безработицы0,20,40,70,92,0Общий баланс государственного бюджета (в % ВВП)-0,2-0,5-0,7-0,9-1,3Чистые доходы----0,1-0,2-0,3-0,7Расходы0,20,40,50,60,6Общий государственный долг (в % ВВП)1,00,71,02,39,8Торговый баланс (в млрд. долл. США)-1,722,131,738,867,3Неевропейские страны члены большой семеркиРеальный ВВП-0,1------0,10,1Торговый баланс (в млрд. долл. США)-2,6-22,6-29,5-33,7-57,5Другие индустриальные страныРеальный ВВП----0,1------0,1Торговый баланс (в млрд. долл. США)-0,8-2,4-3,1-3,6-6,1Развивающиеся страныРеальный ВВП----------0,1-0,2Торговый баланс (в млрд. долл. США)5,12,90,9-1,5-3,7Таким образом… что я могу сказать? Я не человек со сколько-нибудь экономическим образованием. Но, подводя итоги, как мне кажется, большинство высказалось "за", хотя и с большим количеством оговорок. Иначе говоря, перед новой валютой зажегся "зеленый свет". Но это все мои скромные выводы. Хотя… если их размножить и видоизменить, то и получится, наверное, картина всех, кто задумывался по поводу евро на этой стороне океана. А что же Америка? Я не говорю про отдельно взятых специалистов, а в целом?

  • 85. Financial institutions
    Информация

    Another function of financial institutions is the transformation of assets, which are acquired through markets, into a wider and more preferable form, which becomes their liability this function is performed mainly by financial intermediaries, which is undeniably the most important category of financial institutions. Also financial institutions are involved in exchanging of assets on behalf of their customers. Other than that, exchanging of assets for their own personal accounts is also part of their job. Furthermore, financial institutions create financial assets for their customers and sell those assets to other market participants for a definite emolument. In addition to all these functions, financial institutions are also involved in providing investment advice to market participants and managing the portfolios of market participants.

  • 86. Forex. Мировой валютный рынок, технический анализ движения цены, волновая теория Эллиота, уровни Фиб...
    Реферат

    На рынке существует три типа тенденций. Определение тенденций, которое дает Доу, выглядит следующим образом: при восходящей тенденции каждый последующий пик и каждый последующий спад выше предыдущего. Другими словами, у бычьей тенденции должен быть абрис кривой с последовательно возрастающими пиками и спадами. Соответственно, при нисходящей тенденции каждый последующий пик и спад будет ниже, чем предыдущий. Такое определение тенденции является основополагающим и служит отправной точкой в анализе тенденций. Доу выделял три категории тенденций: первичную, вторичную и малую. Наибольшее значение он придавал именно первичной, или основной тенденции, которая длится более года, а иногда и несколько лет. Вторичная, или промежуточная тенденция, является корректирующей по отношению к основной тенденции и длится, обычно, от трех недель до трех месяцев. Подобные промежуточные поправки составляют от 1/3 до 2/3 (очень часто половина или 50%) расстояния, пройденного ценами во время предыдущей тенденции. Малые, или краткосрочные тенденции длятся не более трех недель и представляют собой краткосрочные колебания в рамках промежуточной тенденции.

  • 87. Fujifilm (компания Фуджифилм)
    Информация

    с 1991г. устаревшую серию Minilab-23 сменила унифицированная линейка машин, работающих по процессу RA-4: FA-140(принтер PP-1040),FA-170(принтер PP1800),FA-190 (принтер PP-2600), которые обладали хорошей производительностью , пользовались большим спросом и производились до 1993 - 1995 годов. Отличаясь высокой производительностью, они оказались очень кстати в период бурного роста фоторынка, и в массовом количестве завозились б\у начиная с 1995 года.

    • В 1991 - 1992 гг. на мировой рынок вышли первые лаборатории с монитором - SFA-250 (принтер PP- 1250V ) SFA-270 (принтер PP-1820V ) , SFA-290 (принтер PP- 3000 ), в небольшом количестве они появились и в России, но в те годы даже в Москве лишь немногие фотолюбители могли себе позволить печать и проявку на современных фотоматериалах, и даже Фуджи Компакт вполне справлялись с работой в фотолабораториях, расположенных в наиболее людных местах города.
    • В 1993-1994 в России резко возросли продажи фотооборудования , причем большей частью в регионы. Например, приезжая в крупнейшие города России летом 1994 и осенью того же года,я обнаруживал рост числа лабораторий в несколько раз. Окупаемость минилабов составляла считанные месяцы, загрузка 24 часа в сутки была гарантирована при минимальных усилиях в области маркетинга новой услуги.В основном продавались Компакты,их доля составляла более 90 процентов продаж.
    • 1994 1995 гг - появилась первая компактная лаборатория с ЖК- монитором, SFA-232 (принтер РР-720W), был изменен модельный ряд FA-Compact - на смену РР-540 пришел РР-541, РР-401 также претерпел изменения (узнать модифицированные машины РР-401 можно по кнопке зарядки бумаги , она оборудована защелкой, как у РР-541 и по насосам пополнения IWAKI,установленным вместо старых насосов мембранного типа).У негативной рамки появилась возможность печати панорамных кадров, размер отпечатка был увеличен с 220мм до 260мм. По этим же признакам можно отличить PP-540 последнего выпуска (1994)г.
      в 1994 г. на смену снятым с производства SFA-250 \270\290 пришли SFA-255 \275\295.Модернизация была минимальной и по существу коснулась негативной рамки , в которой появилась возможность печати панорамных кадров.
    • В течение 1995-1996 гг. было выпущено ограниченное количество SFA-257 \277, которые так и не стали массовыми моделями.В связи с появлением системы APS - нового стандарта пленки, они были доработаны, оснащены индекс-принтером и стали широко известны под марками SFA-258 \ 278\ 298
    • Начиная с 1996 года почти все принтеры были модернизированы в связи с появлением системы APS - нового стандарта пленки, так и не получившей распространения в России.Появились дополнительные негативные рамки и индекс-принтеры.
  • 88. Geld
    Информация

    In 1888 schrieb Edward Bellam im eigenen Buch " den Blick in die Vergangenheit " über die Kreditkarten. Die ersten Karten waren papp-, später - metallisch, und dann - plast-. Nach dem Krieg die am meisten berühmten Karten waren die Karten der Firmen Diners Club und Amerikan Express. Ab 1960 machten auf den Karten den magnetischen Streifen, auf dem die Information aufgeschrieben wurde. Die in der Welt am meisten verbreiteten Karten es VISA, Eurocard-Mastercard. Die Karten kommen kredit-, debet- und zahlungs- vor.

  • 89. Henry Ford
    Информация

    Ford was active in several other fields besides those of automobile and airplane manufacturing. In 1915 he chartered a peace ship, which carried him and a number of like-minded individuals to Europe, where they attempted without success to persuade the belligerent governments to end World War I. He was nominated for the office of U.S. senator from Michigan in 1918 but was defeated in the election. In the following year he erected the Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit at a cost of $7.5 million. In 1919 he became the publisher of the Dearborn Independent, a weekly journal, which at first published anti-Semitic material. After considerable public protest, Ford directed that publication of such articles be discontinued and that a public apology be made to the Jewish people.

  • 90. Hассмотрение системы государственной поддержки малого предпринимательства
    Курсовой проект

    Возможно несколько организационных форм предпринимательства в зависимости от желания, возможностей, личностных качеств, семейных обстоятельств, профессии, места жительства и других факторов. Имеющиеся учебные мастерские при учебных центрах службы занятости являются одним из каналов, содействующих предпринимательству, где, во-первых, отрабатываются профессиональные навыки, во-вторых, обеспечивается временное трудоустройство, в-третьих, приобретаются не только профессиональные, но и организационные навыки по созданию подобной мастерской, например, в районном центре. На базе районных центров занятости могут быть созданы подобные мастерские, где помещение и оборудование могут быть предоставлены на льготных условиях районным центром занятости. Фонд содействия занятости совместно с районными центрами может оказывать финансовую поддержку, информационную и консультативную помощь/3/. Правовая форма может быть различной, учредителем такой мастерской может быть районный центр занятости либо коллектив людей, которые решили создать такую мастерскую. Парикмахерская, вязальная мастерская, мастерская по изготовлению и ремонту меховых изделий, мастерская по изготовлению изделий из лозы вот лишь несколько возможных сфер деятельности таких организаций. Фонд может оказывать содействие на тех условиях, которые уже были описаны, людям, решившим самостоятельно создать небольшую фирму, объединяющую людей, имеющих профессии по различным специальностям. Кроме первоначальной финансовой и информационной поддержки, фонд может оказывать организационную помощь:

  • 91. International Trade in the Natural Gas Industry
    Сочинение

    The essence of the neoclassical approach to international trade and specialization of individual countries is as follows: for historical reasons geographical distribution of materials and human resources are unequal that can explain the differences in prices for goods on which the national comparative advantage is highly dependent. This implies the law of proportionality factors. In an open economy each country tends to specialize in the manufacturing the goods which require more factors with which the country is better endowed (Leamer 1995). Considering gas industry it could be stated that those countries which possess large quantity of gas resources on their territories first of all have the comparative advantage compared to other countries and for such countries as Norway, Canada, Qatar, Algeria and Russia natural gas plays the role of factor that creates this comparative advantage. Further more the prices for gas in home-country will be relatively lower than in the countries which are forced to import it due to different costs they need to cover to satisfy their need. But what is better to be a reach natural resource country or it is better to import them to fulfill the internal needs? theorem of international trade of Heckscher-Ohlin was contributed by the theoretical study of Rybczybski which shows that the expansion of export production by using relative excess factors will lead to stagnation in production in other industries for which this factor is not relatively abundant. The theoretical conclusions of Rybczybski were repeatedly proved by cases nowadays known as Dutch disease. The manifestation of this disease was associated with an active development of Dutch natural gas fields in the North Sea, which was accompanied by overflowed resources into this sector. Rising world market prices for all fuels, including natural gas, increased the activity of the Netherlands in the development of new deposits but the new Dutch sector of the economy caused an outflow of resources from other sectors. There was a significant reduction in the output in manufacturing industry. Overflow of resources from the manufacturing sector contributed to a reduction in their volume of production and exports. Similar process has taken place in Great Britain, Norway, Saudi Arabia, Nigeria, Mexico and other countries where the intensive development of new natural deposits was conducted (Rybczynski 1955). As can be seen from the countries which suffered from the same problem not only developing countries can face it but every country if both of the two fallowing factors are fulfilled: first is - open economy, the second is - relatively high availability of the countrys natural resources. There is a more general theory, concerning natural resources- the empirical investigation The curse of natural resources by Prebisch and Hirschman, in the presence of a significant number of control variables set a negative statistical relationship between the wealth of natural resources and the pace of economic growth. (Prebisch, 1950, Hirschman, 1958) Further empirical research on the problem of «The curse of natural resources» was carried out by number of economists. Most important contribution in this research was made by Sachs and Warner. They have studied 97 developing countries in the period of 1970-1989 and concluded that the countries with a high ratio of natural resource exports had a much slower economic growth rate than countries with a relatively low ratio of natural resource exports to GDP (Sachs & Warner 1997). problem of «The curse of natural resources» is very important not only for developing countries, as it is stated in the main stream of literature, but also for countries with transition economies that are rich in natural resources, in particular, Russia, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. The complexity of the analysis of economic processes in transition economies is that the "normal" processes of market economies, here are formed with the specific fundamental changes caused by the transition from a planned economy. As an example we can observe Russia as the richest natural resource country. In spite of uncountable natural deposits which Russia trade successfully internationally this country still cant exit from the category of developing countries and stabilize its economy.country in the world needs international trade in both economical and social aspects. Foreign trade contributes to more efficient use of both domestic resources and resources belonging to other countries, in order to better meet the unlimited needs of the population within the country and abroad. Each country is trying to get the maximum benefit from both exports and imports. But at the same time, all states must carry out certain trading rules which were developing through decades by participants in foreign trade transactions. Focal point for all the processes of foreign trade and the behavior of its participants is the state. In this case, the state carries out its policies. External and internal trade are different because: Resources at the international level are less mobile than within the country In the internal trade each country uses its own currency and in foreign trade the world currencies foreign trade is controlled more by the government The international division of labor by which countries can develop a specialization, to improve the performance of their resources and thus increase the total production - this is the basis of trade between countries. States can benefit by specializing in products that can be made with the highest relative efficiency, and their subsequent exchange for goods, which they were unable to produce.

  • 92. Iнвестицiйнi ризики та iх оцiнка
    Реферат

    ³äñîòêîâ³ ðèçèêè öå ðèçèêè àêòèâíèõ îïåðàö³é, ÿê³ ïðîâîäÿòü ô³ðìè (â á³ëüøîñò³ âèïàäê³â áàíêè). Ìîæëèâ³ òàê³ äæåðåëà ¿õíüîãî âèíèêíåííÿ :

    1. áóäü-ÿê³ çì³íè â îáë³êîâèõ ñòàâêàõ Íàö³îíàëüíîãî áàíêó;
    2. çì³íè ìàðæ³ êîìåðö³éíèõ áàíê³â ç êðåäèò³â, ùî íàäàþòüñÿ, ³ äåïîçèòíèõ ðàõóíê³â;
    3. çì³íà â ðîçì³ðàõ îáîâÿçêîâèõ äëÿ ðåçåðâóâàííÿ ôîíä³â êîìåðö³éíèõ áàíê³â ó Íàö³îíàëüíîìó áàíêó. Íàïðèêëàä, çá³ëüøåííÿ ðîçì³ðó ðåçåðâíîãî ôîíäó â Íàö³îíàëüíîìó áàíêó îçíà÷àòèìå äëÿ êîìåðö³éíèõ áàíê³â íåäîâèêîðèñòàííÿ ÷àñòèíè ¿õí³õ ïàñèâ³â, îòæå ³ñíóº âèñîêà ñòóï³íü ³ìîâ³ðíîñò³ ï³äâèùåííÿ íèìè â³äñîòêîâèõ ñòàâîê ïî êðåäèòàõ, ùî íàäàþòüñÿ, ç îäíî÷àñíèì çíèæåííÿì â³äñîòêó ïî äåïîçèòíèõ ðàõóíêàõ ñâî¿õ ê볺íò³â;
    4. çì³íè â ñèñòåì³ îïîäàòêóâàííÿ âñ³õ ñóáºêò³â ãîñïîäàðþâàííÿ ³ ô³íàíñîâèõ ³íñòèòóò³â, çîêðåìà;
    5. áóäü-ÿê³ çì³íè â ïîðòôåë³ ³íâåñòèö³é, ÿêèé ìຠô³ðìà, à òàêîæ çì³íè â äîõîäíîñò³ ñàìèõ ³íâåñòèö³é;
    6. ³ìîâ³ðí³ñòü çì³í ó ñòðóêòóð³ ïàñèâ³â (ñï³ââ³äíîøåííÿ âëàñíèõ ³ ïîçè÷åíèõ êîøò³â, òåðì³íîâèõ ³ îùàäíèõ äåïîçèò³â, äåïîçèò³â äî çàïèòàííÿ òîùî);
    7. çà çðîñòàííÿ áàíê³âñüêîãî â³äñîòêó ìîæå ðîçïî÷àòèñÿ ìàñîâå “ñêèäàííÿ” àêö³é, âíàñë³äîê ÷îãî ¿õíÿ âàðò³ñòü çìåíøóºòüñÿ;
    8. â ðàç³ âêëàäàííÿ êîøò³â ³íâåñòîðîì ó ñåðåäíüîñòðîêîâ³ òà äîâãîñòðîêîâ³ ö³íí³ ïàïåðè (îñîáëèâî â òó ¿õíþ ÷àñòèíó, ùî ìຠô³êñîâàíèé â³äñîòîê) çà ïîòî÷íîãî ï³äâèùåííÿ ñåðåäíüîðèíêîâîãî â³äñîòêó ïîð³âíÿíî ç ô³êñîâàíèì ð³âíåì. Öå îçíà÷àº, ùî ³íâåñòîð ì³ã áè çá³ëüøèòè äîõîäè, àëå íå ìîæå âèâ³ëüíèòè ñâî¿ êîøòè ÷åðåç çàçíà÷åí³ óìîâè;
    9. ÿêùî åì³òåíò âèïóñòèâ â îá³ã ö³íí³ ïàïåðè ç ô³êñîâàíèì â³äñîòêîì, òî ³ñíóº éìîâ³ðí³ñòü íàñòàííÿ äëÿ íüîãî â³äñîòêîâîãî ðèçèêó ïðè ïîòî÷íîìó çíèæåíí³ ñåðåäíüîðèíêîâîãî â³äñîòêó ó ïîð³âíÿíí³ ç âèçíà÷åíèì ¿ì ô³êñîâàíèì ð³âíåì.
  • 93. Labour productivity
    Информация

    We have employed both a structural VAR analysis and a simulation using the Commissions QUEST model to study these three shocks, shocks to employment, shocks to productivity and shocks to aggregate demand and to measure their relative importance for productivity and employment. What is of specific interest in the context of this paper is the dynamic response of productivity to structural employment shocks. In technical terms, we use a structural VAR (SVAR) methodology, based on Stock and Watson (1988) and Blanchard and Quah (1990), for the identification of structural shocks. The intuition for shock identification in Blanchard and Quah is based on the idea that demand shocks only have temporary effects while supply shocks have permanent effects. Stock and Watson extend this approach and allow for separate supply contributions from labour and productivity (TFP). In order to identify different supply contributions, namely those coming from employment and those coming from productivity, additional identification criteria must be introduced. Stock and Watson use long run restrictions implied by the neoclassical growth model for that task. The neoclassical growth model appears to be suitable, since there are at least three important features in the long run trends which are compatible with this model:

  • 94. MACS: корпоративная стратегия, активированная рынком
    Информация

    Сделать корпорацию «естественным» владельцем бизнесединицы позволяют самые разные ее достоинства. Допустим, она в состоянии достаточно точно спрогнозировать будущую структуру отрасли. Тогда материнская компания будет покупать и продавать активы так, чтобы наилучшим образом подготовиться к грядущим изменениям. Можно добиться и первоклассного выполнения функций внутреннего контроля снижения затрат, достижения выгодных условий сотрудничества с поставщиками и т.д. Бизнесединицы корпорации способны использовать общие ресурсы и производить внутренний обмен товарами и услугами. (Правда, как свидетельствует наш опыт, потенциальный эффект синергии такого рода обычно переоценивается. Руководители изначально убеждены, что внутренний обмен продукцией дает безусловную выгоду, поэтому не рассматривают преимущества трансакций на рыночных принципах.) Существуют и многие другие финансовые и технические факторы, тем или иным образом определяющие «естественного» владельца бизнесединицы.

  • 95. Market and its Functioning
    Информация

    One of characteristics of demand is an interrelationship between prise and amount of demand. When the prise goes up, as a rule, the demand goes down and vice versa when the prise goes down demand goes up. This interrelation is formed as a law of demand. This law is formed with next factors: the first factor: for the customer prise is some sort of barrier which doesnt let him to by the good he planned. Low prise for good is stimulating to buy it and high prise restrains from buying. The second factor: there is an effect of the income and of its real use. The high prise for one of the goods can be compensated with the purchase of other good with lower prise which is able suitable replace the first good. The effect of income is showing that when the prise is lower the costumer is able to buy more of given good and not rejecting himself from buying some of alternative goods.

  • 96. MIG MAG TIG сварка, установка ванн и душевых поддонов, соединение пластмассовых труб
    Реферат

    Ванну, по возможности, вплотную нужно сместить к стене и придать уклон в сторону выпуска. Стык сифона и канализационной трубы зачеканить. Уравнитель электрических потенциалов привернуть одной стороной к спецприливу на ванне в процессе монтажа сифона. Вторую сторону уравнителя подсоединить к водопроводной трубе или заземлить после установки ванны. Уравнитель потенциалов защищает касающегося ванны человека от поражения статическим электричеством, возникающим от удара струи о поверхность ванны. Чугунные ванны, изготовленные в Турции, к примеру, имеют внутри ванны металлические хромированные рукоятки. Для купающегося они красивы и удобны. Корпус этой ванны необходимо заземлить. Сложнее с электробезопасностью в ваннах с гидромассажем. Металлические хромированные сопла выступают над внутренней поверхностью ванны. Саму ванну изготавливают из фаянса (Италия), пластмассы (Словакия) и т.п. Каждая ванна с гидромассажем оснащена электромотором, который через трубы гонит воду. Заземление электрооборудования этих ванн обязательно! В случае засора ванны начинать нужно с прокачки вантузом. Но чтобы под чашу вантуза не попадал воздух. У верхнего края ванны есть сетчатая крышка перелива, которую трубопроводом через тройник соединяют с выпуском. Нужно закрыть крышку перелива чашей второго вантуза, смоченной в воде. Следовательно, для прокачки ванны нужно иметь два вантуза и работать вдвоем. После удачной прокачки открыть кран, чтобы вода промыла трубы, и вновь повторить прокачку. Если на смесителе имеется гибкий шланг, то его душевую сетку приложить к выпуску на несколько минут и откройте горячую воду. Вместо вантуза можете использовать влажную тряпку, но подсоса воздуха в этом случае не избежать. При очень сильном засоре канализационных труб под ванной прокачка вантузами результата не дает. В этом случае вывернуть заглушку, закрывающую прочистку в канализационной трубе для стока воды из ванны. Ввести в прочистку трос и двигать им вперед-назад. Чтобы облегчить работу, нужно открыть кран горячей воды над ванной. Вода "смажет" трос и одновременно унесет часть засора. В процессе работы могут возникнуть трудности. В жилых домах, построенных за последние пару десятилетий, канализационная труба ванны в основном располагается над полом. В нее опущено и колено сифона умывальника. Если заглушка не отворачивается или вообще нет необходимости прочистки, придется разобрать сифон под умывальником, вынуть колено и в образовавшееся отверстие трубы просунуть трос. После устранения засора и установки сифона получше зачеканить кольцевой зазор между коленом и отверстием в трубе, так как при следующем засорении и переполнении ванны в этот зазор направится вода.

  • 97. Migration in Kazakhstan. 20 Years of Independence
    Информация

    always was one of the most important sources of population for individual countries and continents, it has a significant impact on labor supply in labor markets, changing the ethnic and sex and age structure of population of some states, and it is closely related to flows of capital and entrepreneurs.Human Capital Theory explains the reasons of migration to make analysis of worker mobility more predictable. So, it predicts that migration will flow from poor area to the areas where opportunities and earnings are better. Moreover it says that migration is higher among young and better-educated people. Also The Human Capital Theory clearly predicts that as costs of migration rises, the flow migrants will decrease. Here I list the most important predictions of the theory which I use to explain Kazakhstans migration flows.is the 9th largest country in the world with population about 16 million. For Kazakhstan pay a lot of attention to migration in recent times because it has very big demographic problem. Since independence of Kazakhstan there started new migration dynamics. As we know migration could be divided into external and internal. Kazakhstans external migration for the period of independence could be considered in two stages: first is outflow after collapse of USSR for the period 1991-2004 and second inflow of ethnic Kazakhs for the period 2004-2010. Compare to external migration internal migration in Kazakhstan was stable. From 1991 till 2010 internal migration didnt exceed more than 45-ref.people per year.this paper it is analyzed the external and internal migration in Kazakhstan for the period of 1991-2010. It was found that the human capital theory was proved by the statistics from Agency of Statistics of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Migration in Kazakhstan as in the theory is determined by economic factors, ?rst of all income: people are more likely to leave regions where incomes are low and more likely to move to regions with a higher income level. Furthermore, mobility is larger between more populated regions. Distance has a strong negative impact on migration, indicating high migration related costs and risks.rest part of paper is structured as follow: Section 2 describes external migration in Kazakhstan. Section 3 presents internal migration in Kazakhstan and the last Section 4 conclude.

  • 98. Mikroekonomika
    Реферат
  • 99. Nafta
    Информация

    Kalbant apie NAFTA reikрmж pasaulio prekybai, galima skirti dvi nuomones: A) Vieni tyrinлtojai pasisako prieр regioninius prekybinius susitarimus ir laiko NAFTA neigiamu reiрkiniu. Anot jш, CUSTA ir NAFTA бrodo, jog yra “smarkiai” judama link tripoliario (trijш prekybiniш blokш) pasaulio. (Рiш blokш centrai: JAV, ES ir Japonija.) Рie blokai varюysis tarpusavyje, ko pasekoje didлs prekybiniш konfliktш tikimybл. Рios nuomonлs atstovai taip pat pabrлюia, kad regioniniш susitarimш daugлjimo rezultate susidarys fragmentuotas (prekybiniu poюiыriu) pasaulis, kuriame maюesnлs besivystanиios рalys, prisijungusios prie vieno iр рiш susitarimш, neteks “рansш” prekyboje su kitais didesniais regionais ir tai pristabdys jш ekonominб vystymasi. Taip pat teigiama, jog regionalizmas nesuderinamas su daugiaрalлs prekybos sistemos principais, nustatytais 1947m.. B) Kiti mokslininkai palaiko regioninius prekybinius susitarimus ir laikos juos pozityviais reiрkiniais. Todлl, anot jш, NAFTA’os reikрmл pasaulio ekonomikai pozityvi. Рios nuomonлs рalininkш argumentai: i) Regioniniai susitarimai skatina dinamiрkiausiа ir greiиiausiai auganиiа pasaulio prekybos dalб. Рis argumentas grindюiamas бspыdingais prekybos tarp “рaliш kaimyniш” augimo mаstais pasaulyje. ii) Regionalizmas yra nauja “atvirumo” (“openess”) prekyboje forma. iii) Рie regioniniai susitarimai, sudaromi laisva valia, bendrai paлmus prekybai padeda, nes рiш susitarimш pasekoje, iр tiesш, barjerai prekybai juk maюinami.

  • 100. Oценкa бизнеca при cлиянии нa примере OAO "МТC"
    Дипломная работа

    %20%d0%bao%d0%bc%d0%bfa%d0%bd%d0%b8%d1%8f%d0%bc%d0%b8%20%d0%b4%d0%bb%d1%8f%20%d0%be%d0%b1%d0%be%d0%b7%d0%bd%d0%b0%d1%87%d0%b5%d0%bd%d0%b8%d1%8f%20c%d1%80%d0%b5%d0%b4%d0%bd%d0%b5%d0%b9%20%d0%b2%d1%8b%d1%80%d1%83%d1%87%d0%ba%d0%b8%20<http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%92%D1%8B%D1%80%D1%83%D1%87%D0%BA%D0%B0>%20(o%d0%b1%d1%8b%d1%87%d0%bdo%20%d0%b7a%20%d0%bc%d0%b5c%d1%8f%d1%86)%20%d0%b2%20%d1%80ac%d1%87%d1%91%d1%82%d0%b5%20%d0%bda%20o%d0%b4%d0%bdo%d0%b3o%20a%d0%b1o%d0%bd%d0%b5%d0%bd%d1%82a.-%20%d0%bc%d0%b5%d1%82%d1%80%d0%b8%d1%87%d0%b5c%d0%ba%d0%b8%d0%b9%20%d0%bfo%d0%baa%d0%b7a%d1%82%d0%b5%d0%bb%d1%8c,%20%d1%80a%d0%b2%d0%bd%d1%8b%d0%b9%20%d0%bao%d0%bb%d0%b8%d1%87%d0%b5c%d1%82%d0%b2%d1%83%20%d0%bc%d0%b8%d0%bd%d1%83%d1%82%20<http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9C%D0%B8%D0%BD%D1%83%D1%82%D0%B0>,%20%d0%b8c%d0%bfo%d0%bb%d1%8c%d0%b7o%d0%b2a%d0%bd%d0%bd%d1%8b%d1%85%20a%d0%b1o%d0%bd%d0%b5%d0%bd%d1%82o%d0%bc%20%d0%bda%20%d1%83c%d0%bb%d1%83%d0%b3%d0%b8%20%d0%b3o%d0%bboco%d0%b2o%d0%b9%20%d0%bf%d0%b5%d1%80%d0%b5%d0%b4a%d1%87%d0%b8%20%d0%b4a%d0%bd%d0%bd%d1%8b%d1%85%20(%d1%82%d0%b5%d0%bb%d0%b5%d1%84o%d0%bd%d0%bdo%d0%b9%20c%d0%b2%d1%8f%d0%b7%d0%b8%20<http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A2%D0%B5%D0%BB%D0%B5%D1%84%D0%BE%D0%BD>).%20%d0%ad%d1%82%d0%be%d1%82%20%d0%bf%d0%be%d0%ba%d0%b0%d0%b7%d0%b0%d1%82%d0%b5%d0%bb%d1%8c%20%d0%b0%d0%b2%d1%82o%d0%bca%d1%82%d0%b8%d1%87%d0%b5c%d0%ba%d0%b8%20%d1%80acc%d1%87%d0%b8%d1%82%d1%8b%d0%b2a%d0%b5%d1%82c%d1%8f%20%d0%b1%d0%b8%d0%bb%d0%bb%d0%b8%d0%bd%d0%b3o%d0%bc%20<http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%91%D0%B8%D0%BB%D0%BB%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B3>%20%d0%bf%d1%80%d0%b8%20%d0%b2%d1%8bc%d1%82a%d0%b2%d0%bb%d0%b5%d0%bd%d0%b8%d0%b8%20%d0%b0%d0%b1%d0%be%d0%bd%d0%b5%d0%bd%d1%82%d1%83%20c%d1%87%d0%b5%d1%82o%d0%b2%20%d0%bda%20o%d0%bf%d0%bba%d1%82%d1%83.-%20%d0%bf%d0%be%d0%ba%d0%b0%d0%b7%d0%b0%d1%82%d0%b5%d0%bb%d1%8c,%20%d0%be%d1%82%d1%80%d0%b0%d0%b6%d0%b0%d1%8e%d1%89%d0%b8%d0%b9%20%d0%b7a%d1%82%d1%80a%d1%82%d1%8b%20%d0%bda%20%d0%bf%d1%80%d0%b8%d0%b2%d0%bb%d0%b5%d1%87%d0%b5%d0%bd%d0%b8%d0%b5%20o%d0%b4%d0%bdo%d0%b3o%20a%d0%b1o%d0%bd%d0%b5%d0%bd%d1%82a.">Где, ARPU - пoкaзaтель, который иcпoльзуется телекoммуникaциoнными <http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A2%D0%B5%D0%BB%D0%B5%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%BC%D0%BC%D1%83%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%B0%D1%86%D0%B8%D1%8F> кoмпaниями для обозначения cредней выручки <http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%92%D1%8B%D1%80%D1%83%D1%87%D0%BA%D0%B0> (oбычнo зa меcяц) в рacчёте нa oднoгo aбoнентa.- метричеcкий пoкaзaтель, рaвный кoличеcтву минут <http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9C%D0%B8%D0%BD%D1%83%D1%82%D0%B0>, иcпoльзoвaнных aбoнентoм нa уcлуги гoлocoвoй передaчи дaнных (телефoннoй cвязи <http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A2%D0%B5%D0%BB%D0%B5%D1%84%D0%BE%D0%BD>). Этот показатель автoмaтичеcки рaccчитывaетcя биллингoм <http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%91%D0%B8%D0%BB%D0%BB%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B3> при выcтaвлении абоненту cчетoв нa oплaту.- показатель, отражающий зaтрaты нa привлечение oднoгo aбoнентa.