SWOT-анализ программного продукта
Проанализировав таблицы, сделаем следующие выводы. Благодаря свободному входу на рынок появляется возможность сменить поставщика на более выгодного. А географически удобное расположение рынка при использовании хорошей рекламы поможет ускоренному продвижению товара на рынок. Кроме того, возникает шанс сгладить некоторые слабые стороны широко распространить ПП по стране в рамках своей специализации и следовательно расширить объем закупок. Способность ПП к модификации поможет оперативнее подстроиться к быстрому росту КТ. Также совершенствование КТ позволит избавиться от некоторых слабых сторон, т.е. мы сможем создать собственный редактор, обеспечить совместимость с другим ПП, разработать собственные компоненты, тем самым исключив зависимость от поставщика. Большинство сильных сторон способствует удовлетворению спроса отечественных потребителей в данной сфере производства. Данный спрос обеспечит стабильность поставок и сгладит особенности применения ПП. Государственная поддержка малых предприятий позволит использовать ресурсы на льготных условиях, а также компенсирует такую угрозу как несовершенство налоговой системы. Отсутствие зарубежных конкурентов дает нам независимость от зарубежного поставщика, что снижает объем расходования ресурсов. Такая сильная сторона ПП как «способность к модификации» компенсирует деновацию и увеличит ЖЦТ. Практически все сильные стороны дадут нам выгодные преимущества перед конкурентами. Хорошая обеспеченность оборудованием позволит быстро модифицировать продукт, а значит увеличить ЖЦТ. В нашей стране существует такая угроза как медленное внедрение КТ в производство, но ее можно несколько снизить усовершенствованные и новые функции позволят применить ПП на новом оборудовании, а узкая специализация станет сильной стороной т.к. обеспечит целенаправленное внедрение. Применяя при этом эффективную рекламу и рассказывая о качестве товара, мы можем сгладить фактор «привычки». Фактор «привычки» это привыкание пользователя к старым ПП и нежелание тратить деньги на новые, более эффективные. Многие слабые стороны усиливают преимущества конкурентов, но избавиться от этих сторон можно с помощью имеющихся возможностей. Так, например, такую слабую сторону как «отсутствие собственного графического редактора», которая, несомненно, снижает конкурентоспособность ПП, можно исправить созданием собственного редактора, благодаря росту КТ. Таким образом сопоставив сильные и слабые стороны с возможностями и угрозами, мы не обнаружили каких-либо серьезных препятствий для разработки ПП.
- 121. SWOT-анализ программного продукта
Swot-анализ рынка мобильной связи ОАО "МегаФон"
Возможности:Угрозы:1. Благоприятные демографические изменения. Повышение рождаемости. 2. Снижение уровня конкуренции. Позволит уменьшить расходы на рекламу, и не снижать цены на услуги. 3. Увеличение уровня доходов населения. Увеличит сумму расходов населения на услуги сотовой связи. 4. Снижения налогов и сборов. Позволит снизить цены на услуги связи и тем самым стимулировать спрос, увеличить прибыль. 5. Снижение цен на взаимодополняющие товары и услуги. Повлечет за собой спрос на услуги компании. 6. Рост спроса на дополнительные услуги сети. Почти 90% доходов операторы получают голосовые услуги и SMS. И лишь 5-10 % доходов приходится на услуги передачи данных, в случае роста спроса на дополнительные услуги прибыль фирмы увеличится.1. Низкий темп роста рынка (сокращение роста). Повлечет за собой ужесточение конкуренции, снижение цен и. т. п. 2. Большое число конкурентов. 3. Снижение цены у конкурентов. Может вызвать отток абонентов, либо необходимость также снизить цены и соответственно прибыль. 4. Расширения зоны покрытия конкурентами. Повлияет на уровень конкуренции особенно в населенных пунктах, которые до этого не были освоены другими операторами. 5. Выход на рынок новых услуг заменителей. Появление на рынке новых более привлекательных услуг связи. 6. Снижение уровней доходов населения. Уменьшится сумма расходов населения на услуги сотовой связи. 7. Распространение предубеждений у населения против сотовой связи. Научные открытия доказывающие о вреде мобильной связи на здоровье человека, могут повлечь за собой отказ населения пользоваться сотовой связьюСильные стороны:«Сила и возможности»«Сила и угрозы»1. Лидер рынка. Компания ЗАО «МегаФон» определенно является лидером рынка сотовой связи Мурманской области. Абонентская база этого оператора составляет 854 тысячи абонентов (доля рынка 56%). 2. Большая зона покрытия. Данную сильную сторону можно характеризовать по двум параметрам: А). Качество (Абоненты могут пользоваться услугами связи, перемещаясь практически по всей территории Мурманской области т.е. полностью реализована мобильность). Б). Географический. (Зона покрытия охватывает почти все населенные пункты, что увеличивает количество потенциальных потребителей. Во многих населенных пунктах Мурманской области МегаФон является лишь одной доступной сотовой связью и у потребителей просто нет выбора). 3. Высокое качество услуг. Имеется ввиду малая доля сбоев и ошибок сети, а также простоты и перегруженности. 4. Постоянное внедрение новых услуг и технологий. Этот показатель особенно важен для «продвинутых» пользователей нуждающихся в передаче данных и доступа к сети Интернет, где бы они ни находились. Также наблюдается рост спроса у абонентов на информационные и развлекательные услуги. 5. Имидж марки. МегаФон можно назвать в какой то степени престижным оператором. Рекламные ролики позиционируют своих абонентов как успешных и активных людей строящих новую жизнь. Слоган компании - «Будущее зависит от тебя».- Внедрение новых услуг и технологий позволит увеличить прибыль; - достаточная известность будет способствовать выходу на новые рынки; - квалификация персонала, контроль качества, неудачное поведение конкурентов и развитие рекламных технологий дадут возможность успеть за ростом рынка; - четкая стратегия позволит использовать все возможности.- усиление конкуренции, изменение вкусов потребителей повлияют на проведение стратегии; - появление конкурентов вызовет дополнительные расходы финансовых ресурсов; - достоверный мониторинг уловит изменения вкусов потребителей.Слабые стороны:«Слабость и возможность»«Слабость и угрозы»1. Однородность рекламы для всех сегментов потребителей. Вытекает из последней в выше указанном списке сильной стороны. Эмоциональная окрашенность имиджевой информации в рекламе вымещает суть тарифа - информацию оценках и дополнительных условиях. 2. Большие издержки на обслуживания сети. Большая зона покрытие сети ребует большее количество базовых станций, что влечет за собой дополнительные расходы на инсталляцию и техническое обслуживание этих станций. 3. Высокая цена. Цены на голосовые услуги выше чем у конкурентов. 4. Низкая ценность инноваций для потребителя. Неоправданность внедрения новых услуг, неготовность большинства абонентов оценить новые возможности и соответственно нести дополнительные расходы за них. 5. Мало центров обслуживания. Недостаток официальных представительств влечет за собой неудобство абонентов в случае необходимости получения обслуживания которые не могут предоставит дилеры. - недостаток официальных представительств влечет за собой неудобство абонентов в случае необходимости получения обслуживания которые не могут предоставит дилеры; - плохая рекламная политика создаст затруднения при выходе на новые рынки; - неоправданность внедрения новых услуг, неготовность большинства абонентов оценить новые возможности и соответственно нести дополнительные расходы за них.; - снижение уровня цен, размеров налогов и пошлин при сохранении среднего уровня цен позволит получать сверхдоходы.- появление новых конкурентов; - высокий уровень цен ухудшит конкурентную позицию; - неблагоприятная политика государства может привести к выходу из отрасли; - непродуманная рекламная политика не удержит покупателей при изменении их вкусов;
- 122. Swot-анализ рынка мобильной связи ОАО "МегаФон"
The analysis of a condition and regulation of social maintenance of the workers and population in USA
American experience of state regulation of sphere of social maintenance testifies to expediency and necessity of the decision of social problems for close interaction of the government officials, private(individual) and public structures, each able-bodied citizen and extreme precise definition in the appropriate instructions both acts of their rights and duties at preservation of managing function of the state.necessity of constant maintenance of socio economic safety of the country by duly rendering of necessary material support to requiring layers of the population, and also maintenance of social integration of various layers of the population requires(demands) steady performance of the following socio economic measures:round account economic, organizational and demographic factors from the different parties and in a various measure influencing social vulnerability of the citizens and their families, and also ability of the state to the proved changes and additions in structure of the working order of rendering of social support in connection with steady dynamics(changes) of development and perfection of the socio economic attitudes(relations) in public life;differentiation of payments of state pensions and grants(manuals) which are carrying out function for the reasons, independent of the worker, of lost earnings (of pension on age, physical inability, in a case of loss of the supporter, reception of an industrial trauma, unemployment benefit) on principles of insurance and social grants(manuals) to the requiring citizens from budget means of all levels of authority;of the scientifically proved normative base for an establishment about a minimum and forms, connected to this parameter, of rendering assistance.decades the state in USA expands in sphere of social maintenance methods of indirect regulation, first of all, tax privileges, royalty, doing (making) thus economically favourable to the employers expansion of scales and spectrum of rendering of social services to the workers and not working population. The special role thus there is a state social insurance (pension, on a case of unemployment, industrial and household), which not only promotes increase of economic safety of the population, carrying out the basic functions of social protection, but also the adequate compensation of the lost incomes, and also is the major factor of realization of principles and methods of achievement of social integration and increase of labor motivation of participation in public manufacture. In the united States of America the basis of socio economic safety of the pensioners, invalids, persons lost the supporter, or invalid is served by(with) the General(common) federal program of insurance, which was soon distributed on all workers working on hiring and on engaged individual labor activity. The specified program in the legislative order has established the responsibility of the employers for duly payment when due hereunder and in complete volume of insurance payments, regular of pensions and control of their charge to each pensioner, the sizes of which pension depend on the actual experience of work.element of social maintenance of the workers is the system of insurance of the unemployed, within the framework of which last decades develop the new approaches to coordination of payment of the grants(manuals) with measures directed on search of new sources of the income, retraining who does not have chances to return on former work or in general to work on the specialty, i.e. on transformation of the unemployment benefits from insurance fund in fund for the device on work. The experience of realization of the programs on rendering assistance requiring in it(her) shows, that the purposes of decrease(reduction) and restraint of distribution of poverty cannot be achieved only by realization of the special programs focused on the poor population. Changes in all structures of a society(community) for the changes in all structures of a society(community) for changes in all structures of a society(community) The transferring of a center of gravity of rendering of social services to the population from granting of the social grants(manuals) on creation of the necessary and economically justified social conditions for possible(probably) of more complete use of labor, intellectual and moral potential of the able-bodied citizens is in USA the main strategic direction of reforming of all system of rendering of the social help in it(her).with preservation and support of state system of pension insurance and reforming of system of rendering of the regular help to poor layers of the population key elements of policy (politics) on a boundary of centuries became provision of economic incentives having for an object creation of new workplaces and bases for economic growth in the long term - measures promoting increase of economic and social safety present and the future generations. The reduction last years in connection with the next financial crisis and restriction of action of the separate programs on rendering assistance to poor layers of the population at all does not mean decrease(reduction) of state participation in maintenance of social guarantees, faster opposite (on the contrary), the necessity of modernization of the social programs requires(demands) amplification(strengthening) intervention of the state in process of redistribution of means of social protection and development of social guarantees adequate to a present stage of public development, rationalization of realization of the social programs.policy(politics) of social maintenance in USA has accepted the modern form not at once in a modern kind, she(it) has passed the long period of development, and at different stages to it(her) those or other features taking into account concrete historical needs(requirements) and priorities of economic and social safety both usual hired worker, and left on the deserved rest and pension maintenance, forms and methods of influence on economic behavior of the workers and employers were peculiar. Thus, 78% of an account parts of the federal budget are necessary on charges connected to social maintenance and expansion of availability of educational, medical, social and other services - all that promotes strengthening of physiological, intellectual potential of each American. The redistribution of means through the state budget which is carried out in increasing scales, is a basis of social support of the American citizens.in USA per 90-s' years of reform in sphere of social maintenance were caused first of all by growing level of obligatory expenses, valid of more and more adverse demographic differentiation of the population of the country, changes of family structures, shifts in the market of work in the party of less protected forms of employment in connection with constantly increasing competitive pressure of larger corporations and monopolies, and at the end are directed on redistribution of the responsibility between the state, social partners and private persons within the framework of system of social protection as a whole. The acceptance by business last years of the much greater social responsibility assumes, alongside with rendering of usual social protection of the population, and a number(line) of additional organizational measures, in particular, maintenance of measures on expansion of access to continuous training and training for a new profession is direct on workplaces for the recipients (consumers) of the grants(manuals) in view of specificity of the appropriate quota, in particular of unemployeds of the women who are coming back on the market of work after a long break. The important direction of involving of private(individual) business in the decision of problems of employment of the specified recipients is also granting of auxiliary services in a place of work, for example, such as services in a leaving(care) of children.90 years the interaction of state structures, private(individual) sector and public organizations in social sphere differed increased and expansion of a circle of soluble problems, that was connected first of all to reorientation of social support to the needy Americans in employment and professional conversion training. Maintenance of socio economic guarantees still it is enough to the hired workers and not working population not only basic condition and simultaneously by guarantee of social stability in a society(community) and preservation of the property, but also important factor of increase of competitiveness able-bodied, but easily vulnerable in the market of work of the citizens. The secondary involving of the not working pensioners in public manufacture, more complete use their labour, intellectual, and quite often and greatest creative potential yet up to the end using the potential resources is not only consequence of new transformations in a society(community), but also important factor of new economic growth in the country.analysis of practical realization of the social programs of private(individual) business and their state stimulation has shown, that during last decades the state all uses in sphere of social maintenance methods not only direct (establishment of the minimal wages, insurance industrial, insurance on a case of unemployment), but also indirect regulation (for example, tax privileges to the businessmen introducing the social programs at the enterprises), doing(making) thus economically favourable to the employers expansion of scales and spectrum of social services more widely.the basis of the analysis of dynamics(changes) of the basic parameters of development of the General(common) federal program (ОФП) it is possible to make a conclusion that on scales of scope of the population, volume of annual payments - the basic program of state social maintenance quite and covers an overwhelming part of the own population. During the existence she(it) has undergone numerous corrective amendments at preservation of the basic principles:fastening of the right of each working citizen on pension on age, on the disability pension, in a case of loss of the supporter, on unemployment;establishments of the minimal guaranteed level of the incomes for the persons 65 years also are more senior, blind and invalids;established responsibility of the employers and workers for payment when due hereunder of insurance payments;the legislatively established guarantees on duly payment is regular of pensions and control of their charge;solidarity of generations, when the grants(manual) by the one who has reached(achieved) pension age, are financed by the nowadays working Americans;personal interest insured, the sizes of which pension depend on the insurance experience of work.1956 this program has united insurance on age (founded in 1935), insurance on a case of loss of the supporter (1939), insurance on the invalidity which has been not connected to accident on manufacture (by 1956), and also payments within the framework of state system of social insurance. The state system of pension insurance differs by flexibility of the basic parameters of a profitable part - rate of the taxation and minimal size of wages of the workers and employees covered with a state pension scheme, that provides close communication (connection) between with parameters of development of the American economy and financial stability of system of pension maintenance in difference, for example, from Russia. During 1990-1998 The minimal size of the labour incomes subject to the taxation within the framework of system of social insurance, has increased with 51,3 thousand dollars up to 68,4 thousand dollars. According to available by the data of Administrative - budget management by 2009 the level has increased up to 82,8 thousand dollars. The general (common) federal program of insurance is a basis of economic safety of the persons who have reached(achieved) pension age, lost the supporter, invalid. The grants(manual) on a line of state system of social maintenance have the especially important meaning(importance) for separate categories of the elderly population, being by a unique(sole) source of the income for 20% of the bachelors and 25% of the unmarried women in the age of 65 years and are more senior. State guarantees of pension maintenance and health services of the persons of elderly age, including a long-term leaving(care), help in search of work and preservation of a workplace at presence of desire and ability to work after an output(exit) on pension, various tax privileges, and also stimulation of development of the private(individual) pension plans, distribution of the personal pension accounts, promoted hardening of economic independence of the pensioners, transformation them in the most socially protected age group of the population of USA and decrease(reduction) of their dependence from state support from budget means. In the united States to America both woman, and the men on pension leave per 65 years, that can serve a rather attractive example with the purposes of the further perfection of pension maintenance for many countries, including for Russia. It is possible to issue the deserved rest for three years earlier, but then these three years of payment will be on 20 percents(interests) less. The size of pension depends on the labour experience, his(its) continuity and salary. Such order stimulates the population to the maximal participation in labour activity, especially female population, dynamics(changes) of which participation last years appreciablly has grown.pension makes 50-80 percent (interests) from the individual salary - on the average 700 dollars per one month. If the man never worked or his(its) pension does not exceed 75% of a level of poverty, the state pays to it(him) the grant(manual) at a rate of 280 dollars per one month. In USA work both state, and private(individual) pension systems. The majority of the Americans is provided to themselves some with pensions: state, private - collective: in a place of work and private - individual.it turns out the same as at us: all workers pay pension payments, and from this money pay pensions to the elderly people. The hired workers give back in 7,5 percent (interests) of the earnings. His(its) employer as much pays for each hired worker. And the persons of free trades - artists, lawyers, businessmen - are obliged to deduct in pension fund already 15 percent (interests), acting simultaneously in a role both employer and hired worker. The additional pension can be saved in not state pension funds created in a place of work. They are very popular in America, as are favourable to the employers (then they receive tax privileges). Besides each American has the right to open the own pension account in any pension fund.in USA and in other advanced capitalist countries, for example in Sweden, Germany, France, experience of realization of the social programs on creation of necessary social conditions and social infrastructure of the enterprises, establishments, organizations and not working population, and also rendering of the social help to the deprived in it(her) deprived and needy population can by the most direct image be used by development of the domestic mechanism of social maintenance and social protection of the citizens, preparation and acceptance Russian legislative and the certificates (acts) regulating socio economic sphere of activity. The system of the socio economic attitudes(relations) in USA concerning social maintenance with the purposes of realization of state guarantees minimal under the American standards of means to existence adequate replacement of the lost source of the incomes in case of loss or decrease(reduction) of work capacity, loss of the supporter, occupational disease, expansion of availability of educational, medical, social and other services expansion of guarantees of social maintenance became the main long-term strategic tendency. The specified circumstance speaks about expediency to adopt foreign experience not and fragmentary, and in the complex order - complete package because of the deep and proved interdependence of its (her) structural elements.the present time in the united States has developed powerful and effective enough not only socio economic, but also legal base ensuring in national scale economic safety, guaranteed by the state, of the citizens in cases, when they are exposed to objectively existing risks of decrease (reduction) or loss of their constant earnings (income), including after achievement of pension age, loss of the unique(sole) supporter, physical inability, dismissal not on their fault from work. Expedient and competent use of this centuries-old experience and organized mechanism on creation of necessary social conditions and guarantees, and also necessary social infrastructure for the worker and not working population, and also under the indication of the social help to the deprived in it(her) deprived and needy population is essential and expedient necessity especially in the present period of reorganization some more not settled socio economic attitudes(relations) in our society(community).on an example of USA in conditions of market economy the Russian state should take up the general(common) socio economic responsibility for complex system of social maintenance of the population in national scale, which in itself market to create be not capable. The general(common) socio economic responsibility of the state leaves far for frameworks only acceptance of the necessary and socially proved acts, but it should to the full supervise their performance and is severe punish the careless officials, почивших on laurels achieved by them different and is far from being always by plausible ways of the appropriate administrative rule(situation). Actually state with the purposes of own self-preservation by the forces is obliged to take up all completeness of the responsibility for a management(manual) and control above all social systems, which by legislative measures are submitted as obligatory to execution(performance) and for the workers, and, especially, of their employers. But for realization of the specified norms and rules ensuring a necessary level of social care and support of the needy population the chief of state and the officials of maximum ranks should in an enough complete measure correspond(meet) to a borrowed(occupied) rule(situation). In these purposes the creation of system of constant professional retraining of this staff is an extremely urgent and major urgent task among other measures on maintenance of state economic safety of the country. The state regulation of socio economic development in conditions of boundless freedom of market elements, boundless competition, ideological individualism and global personal egoism is not simple business and requires(demands) the maximal purposefulness, deep professional knowledge and considerable intellectual, strong-willed and creative efforts. Now necessity of state intervention in the decision of problems of social maintenance any more is not exposed to doubt. The speech now goes any more about that, is necessary or the state control and state management of a national economy and first of all behind a course of realization of the social programs, and about search and realization optimum or even of most rational methods of state influence on socio economic processes in a society(community) is not necessary. Even last decade, in conditions of revival of the tendency to the personal responsibility for own well-being of the able-bodied and hardworking citizens and new wave of activization of debate on a privatization of pension system, now even most which supporters do not reject a managing role of the state in a part of maintenance of a guaranteed level of pensions, in insurance is brave of private(individual) memory systems, and also in regulation of employment of the pensioners as the forms of their additional material self-maintenance by products of a feed(meal), footwear, clothes, goods of cultural - household purpose(assignment) and payments for usage by still substandard municipal services. Therefore expediency and necessity of study of rich foreign experience on maintenance of the population by necessary social conditions, support and help to needy layers is the conclusive debt, obligatory to execution (performance).
- 123. The analysis of a condition and regulation of social maintenance of the workers and population in USA
The balanced scorecard (новые возможности для эффективного управления)
Как показали результаты исследования, около 50% компаний строят системы оценки эффективности, базируясь исключительно на финансовых показателях, ярким доказательством ущербности такого подхода служит корпорация Xerox, которая, являясь одной из крупнейших мировых корпораций по производству копировальной техники, в конце 1970-х годов понесла ощутимые убытки, едва не приведшие к разорению этого гиганта. Первоначально Xerox сдавала в аренду копировальные аппараты, зарабатывая на каждой копии, сделанной с их помощью. Высокие затраты на бумагу, заправку картриджей, ремонт машин, а также выбранная стратегия привели к тому, что клиенты не понимали, почему они должны нести ощутимые издержки из-за оборудования, которое плохо работает и постоянно ломается. Вместо того чтобы изменить стратегию, управляющие Xerox сосредоточились на улучшении финансовых показателей, не обращая внимания на растущее недовольство клиентов. Руководством компании было принято решение о переходе на новую стратегию, связанную с продажей техники и организацией множества сервисных центров, что, естественно, привело к существенному увеличению затрат. Данная стратегия содействовала достижению корпоративных целей, связанных с ростом прибыли и повышением рентабельности капитала, но только в краткосрочной перспективе. Вследствие того, что сервисные центры не успевали обслуживать клиентов, многим из них приходилось покупать несколько машин, тем самым приумножая финансовые результаты Xerox. Естественно, такая ситуация не могла удовлетворить большинство клиентов компании - они хотели иметь относительно недорогие аппараты, более надежные в эксплуатации и производящие более качественные копии. С приходом на рынок американских и японских конкурентов Xerox начала стремительно терять свои позиции. Новички уделяли большое внимание качеству копий, их машины были более надежными и менее дорогостоящими. Таким образом, Xerox полностью потеряла былое преимущество и была вытеснена с рынка. Только в начале 1980-х годов, с приходом нового руководства, поставившего во главу угла корпоративной стратегии улучшение качества продукции и повышение уровня удовлетворения потребностей клиентов, компании постепенно удалось частично восстановить свои позиции.
- 124. The balanced scorecard (новые возможности для эффективного управления)
The basic principles of regulation by safety of econom
The main levers of management of a national economy, regions, companies and enterprises are the prices for the goods both services and taxes to the proceeds from realization of commodity production, which structure includes also proceeds from realization of services to the population, enterprises, establishments and organizations. Whether the prices should be adjusted by the state or carry spontaneous character? Стихийность ценообразования as a consequence boundless демократизации in economic activity already has proved the economic inconsistency and does not require additional substantiations of its(her) unfitness for economic activity and balanced development of economy of any country. The economically unreasonable failure(refusal) of the doctrine of participation of the state in management of economy of our country has resulted the country in a general(common) economic crisis. Galloping inflation, as a consequence of holiday of the prices in the period of the most active reorganization of the economic attitudes(relations) (1992-1999 гг.), resulted(brought) to обнищанию of basic weight of the population and bankruptcy of a significant part of the enterprises and continuing the destructive influence on economic activity of the enterprises and ability to live of the population which has received the name of "shock" therapy, отзвуки with which and till the present time do not cease, at all was not economic necessity. The price has appeared is too great for the carried out(spent) reorganization, and the results - are much lower than the initial purposes. The balanced price policy(politics) is the integral function of any civilized state, имманентно inherent to it(him) as a part whole организма. The failure(refusal) of the control, regulation and management of the prices on the goods and services actually means self-elimination of state structures from management of a national economy and therefore from government. The economy which has been released(let off) on самотек, objectively be not capable to reach(achieve) any national purpose. Besides the former purposes and former primitive ideology were quite is proved are thrown out for a board of a history, and new standard ideology, except for immense enrichment and pursuit of profit till now and is not produced. Hence, already настала it is time обнародовать national idea, which would reconcile all layers расслоившегося of a society(community) and precisely enough and, main, fairly would express interests of the state and people. The essence of national idea of the current moment, on our sight, consists in the following. The maintenance of well-being, health and safety of a nation in a harmonious combination to strengthening and further development of intelligence and духовности of the population of the country also is the simultaneously main idea, purpose both prime task of the state and society(community) as a whole. The achievement of this purpose is possible only as a result of radical reorganization of the usual system индикативного of management of a national economy, its(her) regions and branches.these conditions the question on maintenance of economic safety of the enterprises, companies, and also regions, economy and population of the country as a whole is superurgent, and on importance and sequence of national problems strongly costs(stands) on the first place. To number of major structural elements of economic safety of a national economy branches, conducting her,(it,) and companies it is necessary to attribute(relate) the following: the control for ценообразованием, sizes of wages (its(her) conformity to demand on the goods of mass consumption, measure and quality of work, and also тарифно-qualifying directory of payment of work from working up to the president developed still(even) in 2010 in institute ЦНИЭИуголь Минэнерго) and system of the taxation. For this reason it is represented to most expedient not selective, but their complex decision. First of all it concerns maintenance of steady growth and conformity between demand for the goods both services, on the one hand, and sizes of wages of the workers and pensions, with another., the initially developed and authorized tax system so strongly also is economically perfectly unreasonably overloaded диффе-ренцированными with the specifications and фондообразующими by parameters and does not correspond(meet) to tasks, facing to it(her), what even its(her) annual updatings, change and addition be not capable залатать all of its(her) hole. From 45 taxes authorized in перестроечный the period, more than half did not work, and other part worked less than half. To the present time there were 15 kinds of the taxes, but you see and this number is overestimated not less, than in 15 times. A number(line) of the taxes, not having substantial economic sense, carry out obvious деструктивную function. So, for example, the tax, working till now in a coal industry, to production of minerals (НДПИ) instead of alignment of economic conditions of economic activity of the mining enterprises by neutralization of influence of the natural factors (conditions залегания угля in недрах, quality of extracted raw material etc.) simply takes from the proceeds a part of the profit угледобывающих of the enterprises most фондоёмкой of branch and instead of involving her(it) in economic circulation by maintenance and development of working mine fund оседает by a dead cargo in недрах госбюджета, not bringing any advantage(benefit) neither coal companies, nor national economy. In result the most labour-consuming branches have no a real opportunity in time to ensure(supply) reproduction of leaving capacities and effective economic activity., taking into account, that an overall objective of a national economy as a whole is the maintenance social, intellectual both moral values of the population and national economy as a whole, including at a level of each enterprise and each coal company is the increase of well-being of the workers, the taxation by the taxes of a parameter expressing this purpose, is economically not solvent and деструктивным by the factor.one Uniform state tax at a rate of 20-25 % from the proceeds of each subject of the Russian economy suffices for normal economic activity to ensure(supply) with financing all надстроечную structure of management of the country, public health services, education, science, culture and its(her) safety. One more example that mechanical copying of foreign experience to anything useful result can not, as has found acknowledgement(confirmation) in the received results. Business that in our country a level of wages of basic weight of the workers and in доперестроечный the period in 3-4 times was lower, than in the advanced countries of Western Europe, Japan and USA, in summary reorganizations it(he) has decreased still approximately in as much time, therefore the general(common) level of pensions and wages of basic weight of the population has appeared on the order below incomes of the hired workers in the advanced countries. Technique of definition Uniform госналога instead of 45 working now (in which calculation even the skilled bookkeepers are confused till now) is extreme simple - account enough part of the budget to divide on ВВП and умножить into factor of a reserve at a rate of from 20 up to 25 % and size Uniform госналога (ЕГН) is ready. The structural analysis of economic activity shows, that manufacture of the goods for the population inside the country was reduced more, than three times, the capital investments in real sector have decreased in 5-6 times, and the export of the capital abroad in commercial interests has reached(achieved) the enormous sizes already which have exceeded the national budget of the country. It proves to be true by the following data of official statistics, tab. 1.
- 125. The basic principles of regulation by safety of econom
The basic principles of regulation by safety of economy
The main levers of management of a national economy, regions, companies and enterprises are the prices for the goods both services and taxes to the proceeds from realization of commodity production, which structure includes also proceeds from realization of services to the population, enterprises, establishments and organizations. Whether the prices should be adjusted by the state or carry spontaneous character? Стихийность ценообразования as a consequence boundless демократизации in economic activity already has proved the economic inconsistency and does not require additional substantiations of its(her) unfitness for economic activity and balanced development of economy of any country. The economically unreasonable failure(refusal) of the doctrine of participation of the state in management of economy of our country has resulted the country in a general(common) economic crisis. Galloping inflation, as a consequence of holiday of the prices in the period of the most active reorganization of the economic attitudes(relations) (1992-1999 гг.), resulted(brought) to обнищанию of basic weight of the population and bankruptcy of a significant part of the enterprises and continuing the destructive influence on economic activity of the enterprises and ability to live of the population which has received the name of "shock" therapy, отзвуки with which and till the present time do not cease, at all was not economic necessity. The price has appeared is too great for the carried out(spent) reorganization, and the results - are much lower than the initial purposes. The balanced price policy(politics) is the integral function of any civilized state, имманентно inherent to it(him) as a part whole организма. The failure(refusal) of the control, regulation and management of the prices on the goods and services actually means self-elimination of state structures from management of a national economy and therefore from government. The economy which has been released(let off) on самотек, objectively be not capable to reach(achieve) any national purpose. Besides the former purposes and former primitive ideology were quite is proved are thrown out for a board of a history, and new standard ideology, except for immense enrichment and pursuit of profit till now and is not produced. Hence, already настала it is time обнародовать national idea, which would reconcile all layers расслоившегося of a society(community) and precisely enough and, main, fairly would express interests of the state and people. The essence of national idea of the current moment, on our sight, consists in the following. The maintenance of well-being, health and safety of a nation in a harmonious combination to strengthening and further development of intelligence and духовности of the population of the country also is the simultaneously main idea, purpose both prime task of the state and society(community) as a whole. The achievement of this purpose is possible only as a result of radical reorganization of the usual system индикативного of management of a national economy, its(her) regions and branches.these conditions the question on maintenance of economic safety of the enterprises, companies, and also regions, economy and population of the country as a whole is superurgent, and on importance and sequence of national problems strongly costs(stands) on the first place. To number of major structural elements of economic safety of a national economy branches, conducting her,(it,) and companies it is necessary to attribute(relate) the following: the control for ценообразованием, sizes of wages (its(her) conformity to demand on the goods of mass consumption, measure and quality of work, and also тарифно-qualifying directory of payment of work from working up to the president developed still(even) in 2010 in institute ЦНИЭИуголь Минэнерго) and system of the taxation. For this reason it is represented to most expedient not selective, but their complex decision. First of all it concerns maintenance of steady growth and conformity between demand for the goods both services, on the one hand, and sizes of wages of the workers and pensions, with another. , the initially developed and authorized tax system so strongly also is economically perfectly unreasonably overloaded диффе-ренцированными with the specifications and фондообразующими by parameters and does not correspond(meet) to tasks, facing to it(her), what even its(her) annual updatings, change and addition be not capable залатать all of its(her) hole. From 45 taxes authorized in перестроечный the period, more than half did not work, and other part worked less than half. To the present time there were 15 kinds of the taxes, but you see and this number is overestimated not less, than in 15 times. A number(line) of the taxes, not having substantial economic sense, carry out obvious деструктивную function. So, for example, the tax, working till now in a coal industry, to production of minerals (НДПИ) instead of alignment of economic conditions of economic activity of the mining enterprises by neutralization of influence of the natural factors (conditions залегания угля in недрах, quality of extracted raw material etc.) simply takes from the proceeds a part of the profit угледобывающих of the enterprises most фондоёмкой of branch and instead of involving her(it) in economic circulation by maintenance and development of working mine fund оседает by a dead cargo in недрах госбюджета, not bringing any advantage(benefit) neither coal companies, nor national economy. In result the most labour-consuming branches have no a real opportunity in time to ensure(supply) reproduction of leaving capacities and effective economic activity. , taking into account, that an overall objective of a national economy as a whole is the maintenance social, intellectual both moral values of the population and national economy as a whole, including at a level of each enterprise and each coal company is the increase of well-being of the workers, the taxation by the taxes of a parameter expressing this purpose, is economically not solvent and деструктивным by the factor.one Uniform state tax at a rate of 20-25 % from the proceeds of each subject of the Russian economy suffices for normal economic activity to ensure(supply) with financing all надстроечную structure of management of the country, public health services, education, science, culture and its(her) safety. One more example that mechanical copying of foreign experience to anything useful result can not, as has found acknowledgement(confirmation) in the received results. Business that in our country a level of wages of basic weight of the workers and in доперестроечный the period in 3-4 times was lower, than in the advanced countries of Western Europe, Japan and USA, in summary reorganizations it(he) has decreased still approximately in as much time, therefore the general(common) level of pensions and wages of basic weight of the population has appeared on the order below incomes of the hired workers in the advanced countries. Technique of definition Uniform госналога instead of 45 working now (in which calculation even the skilled bookkeepers are confused till now) is extreme simple - account enough part of the budget to divide on ВВП and умножить into factor of a reserve at a rate of from 20 up to 25 % and size Uniform госналога (ЕГН) is ready. The structural analysis of economic activity shows, that manufacture of the goods for the population inside the country was reduced more, than three times, the capital investments in real sector have decreased in 5-6 times, and the export of the capital abroad in commercial interests has reached(achieved) the enormous sizes already which have exceeded the national budget of the country. It proves to be true by the following data of official statistics, tab. 1.
- 126. The basic principles of regulation by safety of economy
The City of London and its role as a financial centre
Assets - anything owned by an individual, company, legal body or government which has a cash value.Big Bang -a system of major changes which brought deregulation to the London Stock Exchange in 1986. Bill of Exchange - an officially signed promise to pay to the receiver of the bill, the stated at the fixed time. Bond - a certificate issued by the borrower as a receipt for a loan usually longer than 12 months; it indicates the interest rate and the date of repayment. Eurobond-an international certificate issued by the borrower for a long-term loan (from 5 to 15 years) in any European currency but not in the currency of the issuing bank.Securities-general term for stocks and shares of all types.Exchange-a market for the toll purchase of goods or securities. Stock Exchange-a market for short or long term transactions in securities . Commodity Exchange-a stable market for wholesale transactions in preferably commodities and raw materialsMoney Market-a market for money instruments with a period of validity of less than one year. Factoring- a business activity in which a company takes over the responsibility for collecting the debts of another company. Fund Management- managing investors funds on their behalf or advising investors on how to invest their funds. Financial Futures-legal contracts for the sale or purchase of financial products on a specified future date, at the price agreed in the present.Option-A contract giving the right to buy or sell financial instruments or goods for a stated period at a stated price.The London Bullion Market -The international gold and silver market in London where trade is done by a telephone or electronic links.HedgeThe purchase or sale futures contract as a temporary substitute for a transaction to be made at a later date Open-Ended Fund-A fund without a fixed number of shares Quite-edged loans -Loans issued on behalf of the Government to fund its spending.
- 127. The City of London and its role as a financial centre
The enlargement of the European Union
After a half century of Community history, Europeans still have a lot of soul-searching to do: How far could and should the Union be taken in order to maximise the strength which derives from unity, without at the same time eroding identity and destroying the individual ethos which makes the richness of our nations, regions and cultures? Can they move forward in step, thanks to the natural harmony which favours consensus between 15 countries, or should they recognise divergences of approach and differentiate their pace of integration? What are the limits of Community Europe, at a time when so many nations, starting with the new democracies of central and eastern Europe and the Balkans, along with Turkey, are asking to join the process of unification in progress? How can the people of Europe get everyone involved in the Community undertaking and give them the feeling of a European identity which complements and goes beyond fundamental solidarity?
- 128. The enlargement of the European Union
The Federal Reserve System
Federal Reserve exercises considerable control over the demand for and supply of balances that depository institutions hold at the Reserve Banks. In so doing, it influences the federal funds rate and, ultimately, employment, output, and prices. Federal Reserve implements U.S. monetary policy by affecting conditions in the market for balances that depository institutions hold at the Federal Reserve Banks. The operating objectives or targets that it has used to effect desired conditions in this market have varied over the years. At one time, the FOMC sought to achieve a specific quantity of balances, but now it sets a target for the interest rate at which those balances are traded between depository institutions-the federal funds rate. By conducting open market operations, imposing reserve requirements, permitting depository institutions to hold contractual clearing balances, and extending credit through its discount window facility, the Federal Reserve exercises considerable control over the demand for and supply of Federal Reserve balances and the federal funds rate. Through its control of the federal funds rate, the Federal Reserve is able to foster financial and monetary conditions consistent with its monetary policy objectives. The Federal Reserve influences the economy through the market for balances that depository institutions maintain in their accounts at Federal Reserve Banks. Depository institutions make and receive payments on behalf of their customers or themselves in these accounts. The end-of-day balances in these accounts are used to meet reserve and other balance requirements. If a depository institution anticipates that it will end the day with a larger balance than it needs, it can reduce that balance in several ways, depending on how long it expects the surplus to persist. For example, if it expects the surplus to be temporary, the institution can lend excess balances in financing markets, such as the market for repurchase agreements or the market for federal funds. most of the 1970s, the Federal Reserve targeted the price of Federal Reserve balances. The FOMC would choose a target federal funds rate that it thought would be consistent with its objective for M1 growth over short intervals of time. The funds-rate target would be raised or lowered if M1 growth significantly exceeded or fell short of the desired rate. At times, large rate movements were needed to bring money growth back in line with the target, but the extent of the necessary policy adjustment was not always gauged accurately. Moreover, there appears to have been some reluctance to permit substantial variation in the funds rate. As a result, the FOMC did not have great success in combating the increase in inflationary pressures that resulted from oil-price shocks and excessive money growth over the decade. late 1979, the FOMC recognized that a change in tactics was necessary. In October, the Federal Reserve began to target the quantity of reserves-the sum of balances at the Federal Reserve and cash in the vaults of depository institutions that is used to meet reserve requirements-to achieve greater control over M1 and bring down inflation. In particular, the operational objective for open market operations was a specific level of non-borrowed reserves, or total reserves less the quantity of discount window borrowing. A predetermined target path for non-borrowed reserves was based on the FOMCs objectives for M1. If M1 grew faster than the objective, required reserves, which were linked to M1 through the required reserve ratios, would expand more quickly than non-borrowed reserves. With the fixed supply of non-borrowed reserves falling short of demand, banks would bid up the federal funds rate, sometimes sharply. The rise in short-term interest rates would eventually damp M1 growth, and M1 would be brought back toward its targeted path. demand for Federal Reserve balances has three components: required reserve balances, contractual clearing balances, and excess reserve balances. reserve balances are balances that a depository institution must hold with the Federal Reserve to satisfy its reserve requirement. Reserve requirements are imposed on all depository institutions-which include commercial banks, savings banks, savings and loan associations, and credit unions-as well as U.S. branches and agencies of foreign banks and other domestic banking entities that engage in international transactions. Since the early 1990s, reserve requirements have been applied only to transaction deposits, which include demand deposits and interest-bearing accounts that offer unlimited checking privileges. An institutions reserve requirement is a fraction of such deposits; the fraction-the required reserve ratio-is set by the Board of Governors within limits prescribed in the Federal Reserve Act. A depository institutions reserve requirement expands or contracts with the level of its transaction deposits and with the required reserve ratio set by the Board. In practice, the changes in required reserves reflect movements in transaction deposits because the Federal Reserve adjusts the required reserve ratio only infrequently. depository institution satisfies its reserve requirement by its holdings of vault cash (currency in its vault) and, if vault cash is insufficient to meet the requirement, by the balance maintained directly with a Federal Reserve Bank or indirectly with a pass-through correspondent bank (which in turn holds the balances in its account at the Federal Reserve). The difference between an institutions reserve requirement and the vault cash used to meet that requirement is called the required reserve balance. If the balance maintained by the depository institution does not satisfy its reserve balance requirement, the deficiency may be subject to a charge. supply of Federal Reserve balances to depository institutions comes from three sources: the Federal Reserves portfolio of securities and repurchase agreements; loans from the Federal Reserve through its discount window facility; and certain other items on the Federal Reserves balance sheet known as autonomous factors. theory, the Federal Reserve could conduct open market operations by purchasing or selling any type of asset. In practice, however, most assets cannot be traded readily enough to accommodate open market operations. For open market operations to work effectively, the Federal Reserve must be able to buy and sell quickly, at its own convenience, in whatever volume may be needed to keep the federal funds rate at the target level. These conditions require that the instrument it buys or sells be traded in a broad, highly active market that can accommodate the transactions without distortions or disruptions to the market itself. market for U.S. Treasury securities satisfies these conditions. The .S. Treasury securities market is the broadest and most active of U.S. financial markets. Transactions are handled over the counter, not on an organized exchange. Although most of the trading occurs in New York City, telephone and computer connections link dealers, brokers, and customers-regardless of their location-to form a global market. Market Operations Federal Reserve Bank of New York conducts open market operations for the Federal Reserve, under an authorization from the Federal Open Market Committee. The group that carries out the operations is commonly referred to as the Open Market Trading Desk or the Desk. The Desk is permitted by the FOMCs authorization to conduct business with U.S. securities dealers and with foreign official and international institutions that maintain accounts at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. The dealers with which the Desk transacts business are called primary dealers. The Federal Reserve requires primary dealers to meet the capital standards of their primary regulators and satisfy other criteria consistent with being a meaningful and creditworthy counterparty. All open market operations transacted with primary dealers are conducted through an auction process. day, the Desk must decide whether to conduct open market operations, and, if so, the types of operations to conduct. It examines forecasts of the daily supply of Federal Reserve balances from autonomous factors and discount window lending. The forecasts, which extend several weeks into the future, assume that the Federal Reserve abstains from open market operations. These forecasts are compared with projections of the demand for balances to determine the need for open market operations. The decision about the types of operations to conduct depends on how long a deficiency or surplus of Federal Reserve balances is expected to last. If staff projections indicate that the demand for balances is likely to exceed the supply of balances by a large amount for a number of weeks or months, the Federal Reserve may make outright purchases of securities or arrange longer-term repurchase agreements to increase supply. Conversely, if the projections suggest that demand is likely to fall short of supply, then the Federal Reserve may sell securities outright or redeem maturing securities to shrink the supply of balances. after accounting for planned outright operations or long-term repurchase agreements, there may still be a short-term need to alter Federal Reserve balances. In these circumstances, the Desk assesses whether the federal funds rate is likely to remain near the FOMCs target rate in light of the estimated imbalance between supply and demand. If the funds rate is likely to move away from the target rate, then the Desk will arrange short-term repurchase agreements, which add balances, or reverse repurchase agreements, which drain balances, to better align the supply of and demand for balances. If the funds rate is likely to remain close to the target, then the Desk will not arrange a short-term operation. Short-term temporary operations are much more common than outright transactions because daily fluctuations in autonomous factors or the demand for excess reserve balances can create a sizable imbalance between the supply of and demand for balances that might cause the federal funds rate to move significantly away from the FOMCs target. requirements have long been a part of Americas banking history. Depository institutions maintain a fraction of certain liabilities in reserve in specified assets. The Federal Reserve can adjust reserve requirements by changing required reserve ratios, the liabilities to which the ratios apply, or both. Changes in reserve requirements can have profound effects on the money stock and on the cost to banks of extending credit and are also costly to administer; therefore, reserve requirements are not adjusted frequently. Nonetheless, reserve requirements play a useful role in the conduct of open market operations by helping to ensure a predictable demand for Federal Reserve balances and thus enhancing the Federal Reserves control over the federal funds rate. depository institutions to hold a certain fraction of their deposits in reserve, either as cash in their vaults or as non-interest-bearing balances at the Federal Reserve, does impose a cost on the private sector. The cost is equal to the amount of forgone interest on these funds-or at least on the portion of these funds that depository institutions hold only because of legal requirements and not to meet their customers needs. burden of reserve requirements is structured to bear generally less heavily on smaller institutions. At every depository institution, a certain amount of receivable liabilities is exempt from reserve requirements, and a relatively low required reserve ratio is applied to receivable liabilities up to a specific level. The amounts of receivable liabilities exempt from reserve requirements and subject to the low required reserve ratio are adjusted annually to reflect growth in the banking system. Changes in reserve requirements can affect the money stock, by altering the volume of deposits that can be supported by a given level of reserves, and bank funding costs. Unless it is accompanied by an increase in the supply of Federal Reserve balances, an increase in reserve requirements (through an increase in the required reserve ratio, for example) reduces excess reserves, induces a contraction in bank credit and deposit levels, and raises interest rates. It also pushes up bank funding costs by increasing the amount of non-interest-bearing assets that must be held in reserve. Conversely, a decrease in reserve requirements, unless accompanied by a reduction in Federal Reserve balances, initially leaves depository institutions with excess reserves, which can encourage an expansion of bank credit and deposit levels and reduce interest rates. the 1960s and 1970s, the Federal Reserve actively used reserve requirements as a tool of monetary policy in order to influence the expansion of money and credit partly by manipulating bank funding costs. As financial innovation spawned new sources of bank funding, the Federal Reserve adapted reserve requirements to these new financial products. It changed required reserve ratios on specific bank liabilities that were most frequently used to fund new lending. Reserve requirements were also imposed on other, newly emerging liabilities that were the functional equivalents of deposits, such as Eurodollar borrowings. At times, it supplemented these actions by placing a marginal reserve requirement on large time deposits -that is, an additional requirement applied only to each new increment of these deposits. the 1970s unfolded, it became increasingly apparent that the structure of reserve requirements was becoming outdated. At this time, only banks that were members of the Federal Reserve System were subject to reserve requirements established by the Federal Reserve. The regulatory structure and competitive pressures during a period of high interest rates were putting an increasing burden on member banks. This situation fostered the growth of deposits, especially the newly introduced interest-bearing transaction deposits, at institutions other than member banks and led many banks to leave the Federal Reserve System. Given this situation, policy makers felt that reserve requirements needed to be applied to a broad group of institutions for more effective monetary control-that is, to strengthen the relationship between the amount of reserves supplied by the Federal Reserve and the overall quantity of money in the economy. Monetary Control Act of 1980 (MCA) ended the problem of membership attrition and facilitated monetary control by reforming reserve requirements. Under the act, all depository institutions are subject to reserve requirements set by the Federal Reserve, whether or not they are members of the Federal Reserve System. The Board of Governors may impose reserve requirements solely for the purpose of implementing monetary policy. The required reserve ratio may range from 8 percent to 14 percent on transaction deposits and from 0 percent to 9 percent on non-personal time deposits. The Board may also set reserve requirements on the net liabilities owed by depository institutions in the United States to their foreign affiliates or to other foreign banks. The MCA permits the Board, under certain circumstances, to establish supplemental and emergency reserve requirements, but these powers have never been exercised. the passage of the MCA in 1980, reserve requirements were not adjusted for policy purposes for a decade. In December 1990, the required reserve ratio on non-personal time deposits was pared from 3 percent to 0 percent, and in April 1992 the 12 percent ratio on transaction deposits was trimmed to 10 percent. These actions were partly motivated by evidence suggesting that some lenders had adopted a more cautious approach to extending credit, which was increasing the cost and restricting the availability of credit to some types of borrowers. By reducing funding costs and thus providing depository institutions with easier access to capital markets, the cuts in required reserve ratios put depository institutions in a better position to extend credit. reserve requirement ratios have not been changed since the early 1990s, the level of reserve requirements and required reserve balances has fallen considerably since then because of the widespread implementation of retail sweep programs by depository institutions. Under such a program, a depository institution sweeps amounts above a predetermined level from a depositors checking account into a special-purpose money market deposit account created for the depositor. In this way, the depository institution shifts funds from an account that is subject to reserve requirements to one that is not and therefore reduces its reserve requirement. With no change in its vault cash holdings, the depository institution can lower its required reserve balance, on which it earns no interest, and invest the funds formerly held at the Federal Reserve in interest-earning assets. Discount Window Federal Reserves lending at the discount window serves two primary functions. It complements open market operations in achieving the target federal funds rate by making Federal Reserve balances available to depository institutions when the supply of balances falls short of demand. It also serves as a backup source of liquidity for individual depository institutions. the volume of discount window borrowing is relatively small, it plays an important role in containing upward pressures on the federal funds rate. If a depository institution faces an unexpectedly low balance in its account at the Federal Reserve, either because the total supply of balances has fallen short of demand or because it failed to receive an expected transfer of funds from a counterparty, it can borrow at the discount window. This extension of credit increases the supply of Federal Reserve balances and helps to limit any upward pressure on the federal funds rate. At times when the normal functioning of financial markets is disrupted-for example after operational problems, a natural disaster, or a terrorist attack-the discount window can become the principal channel for supplying balances to depository institutions. discount window can also, at times, serve as a useful tool for promoting financial stability by providing temporary funding to depository institutions that are having significant financial difficulties. If the institutions sudden collapse were likely to have severe adverse effects on the financial system, an extension of central bank credit could be desirable because it would address the liquidity strains and permit the institution to make a transition to sounder footing. Discount window credit can also be used to facilitate an orderly resolution of a failing institution. An institution obtaining credit in either situation must be monitored appropriately to ensure that it does not take excessive risks in an attempt to return to profitability and that the use of central bank credit would not increase costs to the deposit insurance fund and ultimately the taxpayer. ordinary circumstances, the Federal Reserve extends discount window credit to depository institutions under the primary, secondary, and seasonal credit programs. The rates charged on loans under each of these programs are established by each Reserve Banks board of directors every two weeks, subject to review and determination by the Board of Governors. The rates for each of the three lending programs are the same at all Reserve Banks, except occasionally for very brief periods following the Boards action to adopt a requested rate change. The Federal Reserve also has the authority under the Federal Reserve Act to extend credit to entities that are not depository institutions in unusual and exigent circumstances; however, such lending has not occurred since the 1930s. Credit credit is available to generally sound depository institutions on a very short-term basis, typically overnight. To assess whether a depository institution is in sound financial condition, its Reserve Bank regularly reviews the institutions condition, using supervisory ratings and data on adequacy of the institutions capital. Depository institutions are not required to seek alternative sources of funds before requesting occasional advances of primary credit, but primary credit is expected to be used as a backup, rather than a regular, source of funding. rate on primary credit has typically been set 1 percentage point above the FOMCs target federal funds rate, but the spread can vary depending on circumstances. Because primary credit is the Federal Reserves main discount window program, the Federal Reserve at times uses the term discount rate specifically to mean the primary credit rate. Banks ordinarily do not require depository institutions to provide reasons for requesting very short-term primary credit. Borrowers are asked to provide only the minimum information necessary to process a loan, usually the requested amount and term of the loan. If a pattern of borrowing or the nature of a particular borrowing request strongly indicates that a depository institution is not generally sound or is using primary credit as a regular rather than a backup source of funding, a Reserve Bank may seek additional information before deciding whether to extend the loan. credit may be extended for longer periods of up to a few weeks if a depository institution is in generally sound financial condition and cannot obtain temporary funds in the market at reasonable terms. Large and medium-sized institutions are unlikely to meet this test. Credit credit is available to depository institutions that are not eligible for primary credit. It is extended on a very short-term basis, typically overnight. Reflecting the less-sound financial condition of borrowers of secondary credit, the rate on secondary credit has typically been 50 basis points above the primary credit rate, although the spread can vary as circumstances warrant. Secondary credit is available to help a depository institution meet backup liquidity needs when its use is consistent with the borrowing institutions timely return to a reliance on market sources of funding or with the orderly resolution of a troubled institutions difficulties. Secondary credit may not be used to fund an expansion of the borrowers assets. extended under the secondary credit program entail a higher level of Reserve Bank administration and oversight than loans under the primary credit program. A Reserve Bank must have sufficient information about a borrowers financial condition and reasons for borrowing to ensure that an extension of secondary credit would be consistent with the purpose of the facility. Moreover, under the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991, extensions of Federal Reserve credit to an FDIC-insured depository institution that has fallen below minimum capital standards are generally limited to 60 days in any 120-day period or, for the most severely undercapitalized, to only five days. Credit Federal Reserves seasonal credit program is designed to help small depository institutions manage significant seasonal swings in their loans and deposits. Seasonal credit is available to depository institutions that can demonstrate a clear pattern of recurring swings in funding needs throughout the year-usually institutions in agricultural or tourist areas. Borrowing longer-term funds from the discount window during periods of seasonal need allows institutions to carry fewer liquid assets during the rest of the year and make more funds available for local lending. seasonal credit rate is based on market interest rates. It is set on the first business day of each two-week reserve maintenance period as the average of the effective federal funds rate and the interest rate on three-month certificates of deposit over the previous reserve maintenance period. [see 14 p.29]
- 129. The Federal Reserve System
The main principles of safety market economy
Question not idle. The reality all insists on a urgency and extreme importance of all-round consideration of this question both with social - moral, and from the economic points of view more actively. The real rate of unemployment in many conducting capitalist countries, first of all, such as USA, Germany, England, France, Japan and others stably keeps at a level from 6 до10 and more than percents(interests). In the backward countries, such as Russia (received the specified status as a result of disorder of the country and restoration of capitalism in his(its) ugliest form), Turkey, Greece, Pakistan, Afghanistan and others the actual rate of unemployment even above also tends to the further growth, that gets already menacing sizes for economic safety of the political attitudes(relations) in these countries. What economic and moral essence of unemployment how real factor of ability to live of a manpower and population as a whole?, from the economic point of view, the manpower is at all less important factor of economic development, than such natural resources as minerals (first of all petroleum, gas, coal, iron ore both ores of colour and precious metals), which value especially not renewed, constantly grows in process of their improvement, and also created by work of the man the basic industrial and non-productive funds, means of manufacture, factor of which operation comes nearer to the limit. But from among major factors of manufacture the manpower is the main and conducting factor of any industrial and non-productive activity, without which any production in general is impossible. Therefore underestimation of this factor in a national economy or especially his(its) complete ignoring speaks about not professional and simply elementary illiterate approach to economic activity, and public build, admitting essentially incomplete use of a manpower in economic activity doomed on dying off and quite proved replacement by more balanced socio economic attitudes(relations) in a society(community)., as to the population of a planet, the return tendency here is observed, namely - on a background of annually decreasing stocks of natural resources, population everyone 20 years are increased almost twice and to the present time already has exceeded an allowable level of vital resources for our planet. The prediction Malthus comes true that the population will grow constantly faster, than manufacture of products of a feed(meal) for maintenance of his(its) ability to live. The especially actively specified balance began to be broken from the moment of activization of scientific and technical revolution, which ecological consequences have rendered the extremely negative influence on a condition of natural environment(Wednesday). In this connection is reasonably interesting to remind one of bible predictions that come such time, when the people will eat dross of the ability to live, " … as dogs, swallowing waste ". Amazing concurrence to reality of our days.the present time and without that the low level of technical safety of the industrial enterprises, first of all in coal branch of Russia, has conceded the priority to observance of the requirements of economic safety of the coal companies, as independent legal persons, and population of coal regions, which has appeared the hostage of the financial crisis smoothly passing in economic and system crisis of the usual attitudes(relations) in a society(community). To avoid negative consequences proceeding recession in real sector of economy and in financial sphere of activity, despite of significant injections from the earlier saved resources stabilization of fund, will hardly be presented possible(probable) on a lot of the following objective and subjective reasons and their negative consequences., to stop growth of unemployment in branch and in the country as a whole, despite of titanic of effort of administrative structures on management of economic activity at all levels of management of economy, it was not possible, that was obvious right at the beginning recession in real sector. Opposite(on the contrary), during 2009-2011. The quantity(amount) of the unemployeds only on the official data has increased more than on 1500 thousand the man, not considering the considerably increased inflow workers from near foreign countries. The moral consequences it are simply awful. Difficultly even to itself to present, when complete forces the healthy man, the father of one or two children having on the contents the elderly of the parents and young wife, loses for the reasons, independent of him,(it,) work as a unique(sole) source of existence and by virtue of these circumstances is compelled at first to sell the habitation and everything, that in it(him) is, that any time to support the family, and then becomes homeless or criminal, as the unemployment benefit does not suffice even on payment ЖКХ, and on a feed(meal), medicine, the footwear and clothes does not remain practically anything. And such helpless on fault of the new proprietors and state of the people with each year and even quarter becomes ever more and more. Them already legions, exceeding on number army in times. Thus the criminality after growth of unemployment not only grows quantitatively, but she(it) changes also the qualitative structure and social structure. Now criminals become not only hardened repeat offenders, thieves, burglar and other chronically criminal elements, and people with maximum formation(education), workers with the large experience of industrial work, woman (mainly in young age), children and even the invalids.socio economic attitudes(relations) in a society(community) are inadmissible. Hence, on one only to this reason such public build also his(its) elite layers have no any moral right on the further existence and functioning, and clumsy attempts to keep usual of rules(situations) in a society(community) doomed on a failure. If the state be not capable to carry out reforming economic activity from above, naturally and inevitably reforming from below will follow. The historical development not only Russia, but also many other countries of Europe and world repeatedly proved validity of this law of public development of civilizations.state bodies of authorities admitting a high level of unemployment, corruption and other criminality have no any moral right to be and further at authority, therefore owe or accept urgent and resolute measures on liquidation of unemployment and its(her) constant companion - criminality, or to leave in a resignation and to concede these places to anothers, more qualified, ideologically sustained and morally steady experts capable to organize work in the country so that to involve resolutely all basic resources in the country, first of all human, natural, industrial both non-productive basic and circulating capitals for release of commodity production in volumes and quality ensuring need(requirement) of the population of the country. The economists of many countries of the world already for a long time and repeatedly enough is proved asserted(approved), that the presence even of insignificant unemployment speaks about inability and inability of the state to operate economy of the country. The most advanced experts in the field of economy and philosophy confidently both enough is proved and convincingly speak, that if in the country there is even one the not working citizen longer, the government of such country has no any moral, socio economic and even of the legal right and further to operate this country and owes immediately or accept urgent and resolute measures to employment of such citizens, or submit to a resignation, but keep unemployment in the country it does not owe by definition.in it our state is high time and his(its) administrative structures with Olympic calmness look at mass growing disaster of a significant part of the population and prepare the new reports and messages to the people about growing well-being of a nation. That can be even worse, than growing rate of unemployment and poverty of huge weight of a manpower of the country in its(her) base regions ensuring an industry and the population by a heat, light, electrical energy, grain, meat, fish, oil and other strategic goods on a background of such barefaced hypocrisy of the governors who have taken on the responsibility for ostensibly effective development of a national economy and well-being of the people after end of reorganization. In the richest natural resources to the country and huge means of manufacture created per the previous centuries to admit(allow) highest in the world a rate of unemployment is it is necessary to note as outstanding "achievement" in sphere of management of a national economy, and, speaking seriously, as result of inept and illiterate management of the country. Thus it is necessary to remind, that those who has not tested on itself of a rule(situation) of the unemployed, that never will understand of all tragedy of the usual hardest rule(situation) in economy and in social sphere of ability to live of coal and other industrial regions of the country. Thus also there is almost transition, not appreciable on the first sight, from recession of manufacture to recession of a manpower and population - last source of preservation of ability to live in the country. After recession in financial sphere and real sector of economy uncontrollably grows recession in intellectual and spiritual spheres of ability to live, that is less appreciable on the first sight, but much more considerably and inevitably will have an effect already in the near future literally in all spheres of ability to live of the country.it is possible to close eyes and to not see that after growth of unemployment by higher rates the criminality grows, including criminal, mass begging, teenage homelessness, growing addiction of a significant part of the growing up population, alcoholism and seksomaniya in minor age, the mass foul language, tongue-tie and not only among the deputies of State Duma, but also on radio and TV, that in general is inadmissible by definition, together with other displays of aspirations to satisfaction of the most primitive needs(requirements) Simplest by a way. A society(community), in which crime rate and the quantity(amount) of the persons ready to make of a crime exceeds an allowable limit of a parity(ratio) of criminals and ready to their fulfilment with a level of the legislative citizens dooms itself on economic, moral and intellectual collapse.unless such tendency of development spirituality and material rule(situation) in the country is not practical realization of the widely known program of the former director ЦРУ John Foster Dulles, and also in the recent past of the former prime minister of Great Britain Margaret Thatcher and former state secretary of USA Madeleine Albright, number, calling for reduction, of the Russians in Russia by 2050 up to 50 mln. The man, including Russian - up to 15 millions for service of needs(requirements) of the American elite and world(global) Jewish establishment. When the governors of the country resignedly carry out puppet functions domestic oligarchs and their nearest environment, it certainly not only extremely unpleasantly and unworthy. But in any measure is tolerant, but when to this oppression the necessity is added still to carry out the same functions also under pressure foreign oligopsony, such bends becomes simply intolerable for the population of the country, even for its(her) unlucky governors.now our chiefs can not be defined(determined) with that in any way, that now is an overall objective and basic criterion of development of our economy and our society(community).past 20 years of reforming of economy and public life in Russia already in significant volumes the need(requirement) and necessity for declaration has ripened as priority national idea maintenance in the prime order of health, safety and well-being of a nation in a harmonious and close combination to the further development of intelligence (first of all professional trainings) and spirituality of a nation, meaning under spirituality first of all education, preservation and development of such moral qualities as validity, honesty, decency, respect for work (main source of preservation of a nation), and also to the old men, women and children. Already enough has ripened and it is time to realize, to understand and to accept to execution(performance) realization real and already of operative measures on an output(exit) from financial, economic and social - political crisis, so is unexpected (in spheres of management of the country and regions) struck economy of our country, in spite of the fact that there are a lot of domestic economists not from spheres of management, and science convincingly enough and is proved predicted inevitability of approach of crisis in USA and then in other countries, not excluding and Russia. Truly prophets is not present in the fatherland and principle - wanted as better, and has left as always, became the main principle of management of economic safety in the country.the most dangerous factors of the current ability to live in the country are: corruption, mass and regular bribery at all levels of management of socio economic life in the country, merging of business with bureaucratic by the device and first of all with judicial system (already completely corrupt and fenced by bayonets of power structures), inducing complete absorption of moral principles by thirst of a profit passing in the mass order in boundless greed, absorbing the rests of high moral principles of ability to live in the country. Such system of the attitudes(relations) in a society(community) guarantees deadlock prospect of development of a nation and their next outcome by the most barbarous revolutionary way. It is necessary to note, that the main reason of arising problems in a society(community), certainly, is the change of the proprietor of means of manufacture in the beginning 90 years of the last century, that has taken place under influence and pressure as on the part of aggressive circles of USA, and own crooks and swindlers patiently waiting of the moment of easing of state authority and, being covered the democratic slogans and deceiving the population to carry out criminal commercial and social - political plans. The tolerant attitude(relation) to new bourgeoisie still could be kept, if the new owners instead of export stole of the capital abroad would put the investments in development of domestic manufacture and on improvement of a social level of the workers and pensioners, but the passion to a boundless profit can cause only new shocks and new redistribution of the property. unemployment corruption market economy
- 130. The main principles of safety market economy
The manager as a teacher: selected aspects of stimulation of scientific thinking
Principle of performance of action. Any system is intended for any well defined and concrete goal specific for it, and for this purpose it performs only specific (target-oriented) actions. Hence, the goal of a system is the aspiration to perform certain purposeful actions for the achievement of target-oriented (appropriate) result of action. The plane is designed for air transportation, but cannot float; for this purpose there is an amphibian aircraft. The result of aircraft performance is moving by air. This result of action is expectable and predictable. The constancy and predictability of functional performance is a distinctive feature of any systems living, natural, social, financial, technical, etc. Consequently, in order to achieve the goal any object of our World should function, make any purposeful actions, operations (in this case the purposeful, deliberate inaction is in some sense an action, too). Action is manifestation of some energy, activity, as well as force itself, the functioning of something; condition, process arising in response to some influence, stimulant/irritant, impression (for example, reaction in psychology, chemical reactions, nuclear reactions). The objects action is followed by the result of action (not always expected, but always logical and conditioned). The purpose of any system is the aspiration to yield appropriate (targeted) result of action. At that, the given object is the donor of the result of action. The result of action of donor system can be directed towards any other system which in this case will be the recipient (target) for the result of action. In this case the result of action of the donor system becomes the external influence for the recipient system. Interaction between the systems is carried out only through the results of action. In that way the chain of actions is built as follows: ... > (external influence) > result of action (external influence) >... The system produces single result of action for single external influence. No object operates in itself. It cannot decide on its own “Here now I will start to operate” because it has no freedom of will and it cannot set the goal before itself and produce the result of action on its own. It can only react (act) in response to certain external influence. Any actions of any objects are always their reaction to something. Any influence causes response/reaction. Lack of influence causes no reaction. Reaction can sometimes be delayed, therefore it may seem causeless. But if one digs and delves, it is always possible to find the cause, i.e. external influence. Cognition of the world only falls to our lot through the reactions of its elements. Reaction (from Latin “re” return and “actio” - action) is an action, condition, process arising in response to some influence, irritant/stimulant, impression (for example, reaction in psychology, chemical reactions, nuclear reactions). Consequently, the systems action in response to the external influence is the reaction of the system. When the system has worked (responded) and the required result of action has been received, it means that it has already achieved (“quenched”) the goal and after that it has no any more goal to aspire to. Reaction is always secondary and occurs only and only following the external influence exerted upon the element. Reaction can sometimes occur after a long time following the external influence if, for example, the given element has been specially “programmed” for the delay. But it will surely occur, provided that the force of the external influence exceeds the threshold of the elements sensitivity to the external influence and that the element is capable to respond to the given influence in general. If the element is able of reacting to pressure above 1 atmosphere it will necessarily react if the pressure is in excess of 1 atmosphere. If the pressure is less than 1 atmosphere it will not react to the lower pressure. If it is influenced by temperature, humidity or electric induction, it will also not react, howsoever we try to “persuade” it, as it is only capable to react to pressure higher than 1 atmosphere. In no pressure case (no pressure above 1 atmosphere), it will never react. Since the result of the systems performance appears only following some external influence, it is always secondary, because the external influence is primary. External influence is the cause and the result of action is a consequence (function). It is obvious that donor systems can produce one or several results of action, while the recipient systems may only react to one or several external influences. But donor elements can interact with the recipient systems only in case of qualitatively homogeneous actions. If the recipient systems can react only to pressure, then the systems able of interacting with them may be those which result of action is pressure, but not temperature, electric current or something else. Interaction between donor systems and recipient systems is only possible in case of qualitative uniformity (homoreactivity, the principle of homogeneous interactivity). We can listen to the performance of the musician on a stage first of all because we have ears. The earthworm is not able to understand our delight from the performance of the musician at least for the reason that it has no ears, it cannot perceive a sound and it has no idea about a sound even if (hypothetically) it could have an intelligence equal to ours. The result of action of the recipient element can be both homogeneous (homoreactive) and non-homogeneous, unequal in terms of quality of action (heteroreactive) of external influence in respect of it. For example, the element reacts to pressure, and its result of action can be either pressure or temperature, or frequency, or a stream/flow of something, or the number of inhabitants of the forest (apartment, city, country) etc. Hence, the reaction of an element to the external influence can be both homoreactive and heteroreactive. In the first case the elements are the action transmitters, in the second case they are converters of quality of action. If the result of the systems actions completely corresponds to the implementation of goal, it speaks of the sufficiency of this system (the given group of interacting elements) for the given purpose. If not, the given group of elements mismatches the given goal/purpose and/or is insufficient, or is not the proper system for the achievement of a degree of quality and quantity of the preset goal. Therefore, any existing object can be characterized by answering the basic question: “What can the given object do?” This question characterizes the concept of the “result of action of an object” which in turn consists of two subquestions: What action can be done by given object? (the quality of result of action); How much of such action can be done by the given object? (the quantity of result of action). These two subquestions characterize the aspiration of a system to implement the goal. And the goal-setting may be characterized by answering another question: “What should the given object do?” which also consists of two subquestions: what action should the given object do? (the quality of the result of action); how much of such action should the given object do? (the quantity of the result of action). These last two subquestions are the ones that determine the goal as a task (the order/command, the instruction) for the given object or group of objects, and the system is being sought or built to achieve this goal. The closer the correspondence between what should and what can be done by the given object, the closer the given object is to the ideal system. The real result of action of the system should correspond to preset (expected) result. This correspondence is the basic characteristic of any system. Wide variety of systems may be built of a very limited number of elements. All the diverse material physical universe is built of various combinations of protons, electrons and neutrons and these combinations are the systems with specific goals/purposes. We do not know the taste of protons, neutrons and electrons, but we do know the taste of sugar which molecular atoms are composed of these elements. Same elements are the constructional material of both the human being and a stone. The result of the action of pendulum would be just swaying, but not secretion of hormones, transmission of impulse, etc. Hence, its goal/purpose and result of action is nothing more but only swaying at constant frequency. The symphonic orchestra can only play pieces of music, but not build, fight or merchandize, etc. Generator of random numbers should generate only random numbers. If all of a sudden it starts generate series of interdependent numbers, it will cease to be the generator of random numbers. Real and ideal systems differ from each other in that the former always have additional properties determined by the imperfection of real systems. Massive golden royal seal, for example, may be used to crack nuts just as well as by means of a hammer or a plain stone, but it is intended for other purpose. Therefore, as it has already been noted above, the concept of “system” is relative, but not absolute, depending on correspondence between what should and what can be done by the given object. If the object can implement the goal set before it, it is the system intended for the achievement of this goal. If it cannot do so, it is not the system for the given goal, but can be a system intended for other goals. It does not mater for the achievement of the goal what the system consists of, but what is important is what it can do. In any case the possibility to implement the goal determines the system. Therefore, the system is determined not by the structure of its elements, but by the extent of precision/accuracy of implementation of the expected result. What is important is the result of action, rather than the way it was achieved. Absolutely different elements may be used to build the systems for the solution of identical problems (goals). The sum of US$200 in the form of US$1 value coins each and the check for the same amount can perform the same action (may be used to make the same purchase), although they consist of different elements. In one case it is metal disks with the engraved signs, while in other case it is a piece of a paper with the text drawn on it. Hence, they are systems named “money” with identical purposes, provided that they may be used for purchase and sale without taking into account, for example, conveniences of carrying them over or a guarantee against theft. But the more conditions are stipulated, the less number of elements are suitable for the achievement of the goal. If we, for example, need large amount of money, say, US$1.000.000 in cash, and want it not to be bulky and the guarantee that it is not counterfeit we will only accept US$100 bank notes received only from bank. The more the goal is specified, the less is the choice of elements suitable for it. Thus, the system is determined by the correspondence of the goal set to the result of its action. The goal is both the task for an object (what it should make) and its aspiration or desire (what it aspires to). If the given group of elements can realize this goal, it is a system for the achievement of the goal set. If it cannot realize this goal, it is not the system intended for the achievement of the given goal, although it can be the system for the achievement of other goals. The system operates for the achievement of the goal. Actually, the system transforms through its actions the goal into the result of action, thus spending its energy. Look around and everything youll see are someones materialized goals and realized desires. On a large scale everything that populates our World is systems and just systems, and all of them are intended for a wide range of various purposes. But we do not always know the purposes of many of these systems and therefore not all objects are perceived by us as systems. Reactions of systems to similar external influences are always constant, because the goal is always determined and constant. Therefore, the result of action should always be determined, i.e. identical and constant (a principle of consistency of correspondence of the systems action result to the appropriate result), and for this purpose the systems actions should be the same (the principle of a constancy of correspondence of actual actions of the system to the due ones). If the result fails to be constant it cannot be appropriate and equal to the preset result (the principle of consistency/permanency of the result of action). The conservation law proceeds/results/ from the principle of consistency/permanency of action. Let us call the permanency of reaction “purposefulness”, as maintaining the similarity (permanency/consistency) of reaction is the goal of a system. Hence, the law of conservation is determined by the goal/purpose. The things conserved would be those only, which correspond to the achievement of the systems goal. This includes both actions per se and the sequence of actions and elements needed to perform these actions, and the energy spent for the performance of these actions, because the system would seek to maintain its movement towards the goal and this movement will be purposeful. Therefore, the purpose determines the conservation law and the law of cause-and-effect limitations (see below), rather than other way round. The conservation law is one of the organic, if not the most fundamental, laws of our universe. One of particular consequences of the conservation law is that the substance never emerges from nothing and does not transform into nothing (the law of conservation of matter). It always exists. It might have been non-existent before origination of the World, if there was origination of the World per se, and it might not be existent after its end, if it is to end, but in our World it does neither emerge, nor disappear. A matter is substance and energy. The substance (deriving from the /Rus/ word “thing”, “object” ) may exist in various combinations of its forms (liquid, solid, gaseous and other, as well as various bodies), including the living forms. But matter is always some kind of objects, from elementary particles to galaxies, including living objects.Substance consists of elements. Some forms of substances may turn into others (chemical, nuclear and other structural transformations) at the expense of regrouping of elements by change of ties between them. Physical form of the conservation law is represented by Einsteins formula. A substance may turn into energy and other way round. Energy (from Greek “energeia” - action, activity) is the general quantitative measure of movement and interaction of all kinds of matter. Energy in nature does not arise from anything and does not disappear; it only can change its one form into another. The concept of energy brings all natural phenomena together. Interaction between the systems or between the elements of systems is in effect the link between them. From the standpoint of system, energy is the measure (quantity) of interaction between the elements of the system or between the systems which needs to be accomplished for the establishment of link between them. For example, one watt may be material measure of energy. Measures of energy in other systems, such as social, biological, mental and other, are not yet developed. Any objects represent the systems, therefore interactions between them are interactions between the systems. But systems are formed at the expense of interaction between their elements and formations of inter-element relations between them. In the process of interaction between the systems intersystem relations are established. Any action, including interaction, needs energy. Therefore, when establishing relations/links/ the energy is being “input”. Consequently, as interaction between the elements of the system or different systems is the relation/link between them, the latter is the energy-related concept. In other words, when creating a system from elements and its restructuring from simple into complex, the energy is spent for the establishment of new relations /links /connections between the elements. When the system is destructed the links between the elements collapse and energy is released. Systems are conserved at the expense of energy of relations/links between its elements. It is the internal energy of a system. When these relations/links are destructed the energy is released, but the system itself as an object disappears. Consequently, the internal energy of a system is the energy of relations/link between the elements of the system. In endothermic reactions the energy used for the establishment of connections/links/relations comes to the system from the outside. In exothermic reactions internal energy of the system is released at the expense of rupture of these connections between its internal own elements which already existed prior to the moment when reaction occurred. But when the connection is already formed, by virtue of conservation law its energy is not changed any more, if no influence is exerted upon the system. For example, in establishing of connections/links between the two nuclei of deuterium (2D2) the nucleus 1Не4 is formed and the energy is released (for the purpose of simplicity details are omitted, for example, reaction proton-proton). And the 1Не4 nucleus mass becomes slightly less than the sum of masses of two deuterium nuclei by the value multiple of the energy released, in accordance with the physical expression of the conservation law. Thus, in process of merge of deuterium nuclei part of their intra-nuclear bonds collapses and it is for this reason that the merge of these nuclei becomes possible. The energy of connection between the elements of deuterium nuclei is much stronger than that of the bond between the two deuterium nuclei. Therefore, when part of connections between elements of deuterium nuclei is destructed the energy is released, part of it being used for thermonuclear synthesis, i.e. the establishment of connection/bond between the two deuterium nuclei (extra-nuclear connection/bond in respect to deuterium nuclei), while other part is released outside helium nucleus. But our World is tamped not only with matter. Other objects, including social, spiritual, cultural, biological, medical and others, are real as well. Their reality is manifested in that they can actively influence both each other and other kinds of matter (through the performance of other systems and human beings). And they also exist and perform not chaotically, but are subjected to specific, though strict laws of existence. The law of conservation applies to them as well, because they possess their own kinds of “energy” and they did not come into being in a day, but may only turn one into another. Any system can be described in terms of qualitative and quantitative characteristics. Unlike material objects, the behavior of other objects can be described nowadays only qualitatively, as they for the present the have no their own “thermodynamics”, for example, “psychodynamics”. We do not know, for example, what quantity of “Watt” of spiritual energy needs to be applied to solve difficult psychological problem, but we know that spiritual energy is needed for such a solution. Nevertheless, these objects are the full-value systems as well, and they are structured based on the same principles as other material systems. As systems are the groups of elements, and changes of forms of substances represent the change of connections/bonds between the elements of substance, then changes of forms of substances represent the changes of forms of systems. Hence, the form is determined by the specificity of connections/bonds/ties between the elements of systems. “Nothing in this world lasts for ever”, the world is continually changing, whereby one kind of forms of matter turn into other, but it is only forms that vary, while matter is indestructible and always conserved. At the same time, alteration of forms is also subjected to the law of conservation and it is this law that determines the way in which one kind of forms should replace other forms of matter. Forms only alter on account of change of connections/ties between the elements of systems. As far as each connection between the system elements has energetic equivalent, any system contains internal energy which is the sum of energies of connections/bonds between all elements. The “form: (Latin, philos.) is a totality of relations determining the object. The form is contraposed to matter, the content of an object. According to Aristotle, the form is the actuating force that forms the objects and exists beyond the latter. According to Kant, form is everything brought in by the subject of cognition to the content of the cognizable matter - space, time and substance of the form of cognitive ability; all categories of thinking: quantity, quality, relation, substance, place, time, etc., are forms, the product of ability of abstraction, formation of general concepts of our intellect. However, these are not quite correct definitions. The form cannot be contraposed to matter because it is inseparably linked with the latter, it is the form of matter itself. The form cannot be a force either, although it probably pertains to energy because it is determined by energy-bearing connections within the system. According to Kant, form is a purely subjective concept, as it only correlates with intellectual systems and their cognitive abilities. Why, do not the forms exist without knowing them? Any system has one or other shape/look of form. And the systems form is determined by type and nature of connections/relations/bonds between the system elements. Therefore, the form is a kind of connections between the system elements. Since the systems may interact, new connections/bonds between them are thus established and new forms of systems emerge. In other words, in process of interaction between the systems new systems emerge as new forms. The energy is always expended in the course of interaction between the systems. Logic form of the conservation law is the law of cause-and-effect limitations because it is corresponded by a logical connective “if....., then….” Possible choice of external influences (causes) to which the system should react is limited by the first part of this connective “if...”, whereas the actions of systems (consequences) are limited by the second part “then...”. It is for this reason that the law is called the law of cause-and-effect limitations. This law reads “Any consequence has its cause /every why has a wherefore/”. Nothing appears without the reason/cause and nothing disappears for no special reason/cause. There are no consequences without the reason/cause, there is no reaction without the influence. It is unambiguousness and certainty of reaction of systems to the external influence that lays the cornerstone of determinism in nature. Every specific cause is followed by specific consequence. The system should always react only to certain external influences and always react only in a certain way. Chemoreceptor intended for О2 would always react only to О2, but not to Na +, Ca ++ or glucose. At that, it will give out certain potential of action, rather than a portion of hormone, mechanical contraction or something else. Any system differs in specificity of the external influence and specificity of the reaction. The certainty of external influences and the reactions to them imposes limitations on the types of the latter. Therefore, the need in the following arises from the law of cause-and-effect limitations: execution of any specific (certain) action to achieve specific (certain) purpose; existence of any specific (certain) system (subsystem) for the implementation of such action, as no action occurs by itself; sequences of actions: the system would always start to perform and produce the result of action only after external influence is exerted on it because it does not have free will for making decision on the implementation of the action. Hence, the result of the system performance can always appear only after certain actions are done by the system. These actions can only be done following the external influence. External influence is primary and the result of action is secondary. Of all possible actions those will be implemented only which are caused by external influence and limited (stipulated) by the possibilities of the responding system. If, following the former external influence, the goal is already achieved and there is no new external influence after delivery of the result of action, the system should be in a state of absolute rest and not operate, because it is only the goal that makes the system operate, and this goal is already achieved. No purpose - no actions. If new external influence arises a new goal appears as well, and then the system will start again to operate and new result of action will be produced.
- 131. The manager as a teacher: selected aspects of stimulation of scientific thinking
do information work, people in the company have to be able to find information easily. Until recently though, we've been told that «the numbers» should be reserved for the most senior executives. Sometimes there are good reasons for secrecy, but usually information has been reserved simply because it took time, money, and effort to move information around, so you had to be senior to order the work. On today's computer networks you can find and present data easily and cheaply. You can dive into the data to the lowest level of detail and look at it from different angles. You can exchange information and ideas with other people. You can bring together the ideas and work of many people for a better result.need to stop thinking that getting information and moving information around is difficult and expensive. It's just basic common sense to make all of your company's data easily available to every person who can use it.of a company's employees, not just its high-level executives, need to see business data. It's important for me as a Chief Executive Officer (CEO) to understand how the company is doing across regions or product lines or different types of customer, and I take pride in staying informed. However, it's the middle managers in every company who need to understand where their profits and losses come from, what marketing programs are working or not, and what expenses are under control or too high. They're the people who need accurate, useful data because they're the ones who need to act. They shouldn't have to wait for upper management to bring information to them. Companies should spend less time protecting financial data from employees and more time teaching them to analyze and act on it.many companies the middle managers can drown in day-to-day problems and not have the information they need to fix them. A sign of a good digital nervous system is that middle managers are made more effective by the flow of accurate, useful information. The systems should tell them about unusual events-for example, if an expense item is too high. Then the managers don't need to look at normal expense activity. Some companies work like this, but I'm constantly surprised by how few companies use information technology to keep their middle managers well-informed and avoid routine review.'m amazed by the twisted path that important information often takes through many Fortune 500 companies. At McDonald's, until recently, sales data had to be «touched» by hand several times before it made its way to the people who needed it. Today McDonald's is installing a new information system that processes sales at all of its restaurants in real time. As soon as you order two Happy Meals, a McDonald's marketing manager will know. So that manager will have hard facts to analyze sales, not unreliable data.we'll see in the description of Microsoft's reaction to the Internet, another sign of a good digital nervous system is the number of good ideas coming from your middle managers and knowledge workers. When they can analyze real data, people get detailed ideas about how to do things better-and they get excited, too. People like knowing that something they're doing is working and they like being able to show managers that it's working. They enjoy using technology that encourages them to test different theories about what's happening in their markets. People really appreciate information.final sign of a good digital nervous system is how effective your face-to-face meetings are. Good meetings are the result of good preparation. Meetings shouldn't be used mainly to present information. It's more efficient to use e-mail* so that people can analyze data before the meeting. Then they will be prepared to make suggestions and debate the issues at the meeting itself.that are struggling with too many unproductive meetings don't lack energy and brains. The data they need exists somewhere in the company in some form. Digital tools would enable them to get the data immediately, from many sources, and to analyze it from many angles.'s Alfred Sloan said that without facts it's impossible to put an effective plan into action. I believe that if you have good facts, you can put an effective plan into action. Sloan did, many times over. At the speed business moves today, we need more than ever to manage with the force of facts.I'm describing here is a new level of information analysis that enables knowledge workers to turn raw data into active information-what Michael Dertouzos calls knowledge-as-a-verb. A digital nervous system enables a company to do information work with more efficiency, depth, and creativity.
- 132. The Overdrive
The Russian transition to a market system
Important place in the transformation process in Eastern Europe has been privatized, which together with other socio-economic changes contributed to overcoming the economic crisis. In the mid 90's. Almost all Eastern European countries emerging transformational recession entered the stage of economic growth.transition from recession to growth in these countries contributed to7:)The rapid expansion of the "new private sector" that is, private companies created in recent years with "zero" in the light and food industries. They do not require large capital investments are focused primarily on consumer demand;)A large influx of foreign capital. At new factories built by foreign companies with high technical equipment, is rapidly increasing production;)Clean-up of banks and enterprise restructuring. As a result, the banks got rid of "bad" debt by the debtor companies. Simultaneously there was a union of banks impose stricter regulation of banking activities. Enterprise restructuring was aimed at a wide range of measures to improve its operations: Isolation from the business viable and nonviable structural units, privatization, dismissal of employees, selection of managers, looking for investors, the modernization and development of new products, marketing organizations, etc.;)Selective structural policy: state support of potentially competitive enterprises., this has greatly solved the problem of financial stabilization, liberalization and institutional reforms8:interest is the experience of market reforms in China. This process began there in the late 70's. In developing reform programs were developed principles for their implementation: E to copy the experience of other countries that rely mainly on their own resources, to preserve the socialist socio-economic order, make changes gradually and comprehensively, to avoid the social, political, and psychological upheavals in society.that the bulk of the population lives in the countryside, reform was decided to start with them. The peasants have the right to rent land. With the deepening of the reform period contracts for land use is prolonged. This stimulated the long-term investment in allotments. Now ownership of the land was inherited. Land formally is in collective ownership, and in fact - has been privatized. Peasants receive mandatory stable jobs for the sale of the state of several kinds of products. The remaining products are sold on the open market at market prices.industry, the task of privatization was not posed. The reforms are carried out through decentralized control. Significant role in China's economy is state. Pricing is based on a combination of market and state prices. The state sets the prices of the most important kinds of strategic products and services. Exercise tight control of the monetary system. At the same time attach great importance to private sector development, particularly in retail trade and services sectors. Production and sales of approximately are half of all goods by market constraints and prices. A proliferation of commodity is exchanges.1992, it embarked on the establishment of mixed forms of ownership. In this case, public ownership remains dominant. It allowed corporatization of state ownership, attracting foreign capital, a merger of enterprises of different ownership forms.a result of the reforms in China has formed a two-sector model of the economy. Market mechanisms were the main regulators in the production of consumer goods and largely cover the production of investment goods. At the same time the State has not waived and the planned management practices. Until now, there are policy plans and the planned provision of material resources.9
- 133. The Russian transition to a market system
The teaching of Hugo Gratius
Gratius writes that his treatise is written in the defense of justice. This view on justice is as metaphysical as view on state and law. The origins of this metaphysical view are shown in the work F. Engels “To the living problem”. Looking over the emerging of state and law, Engels writes that at a certain stage of class society development complex legislation and a class of professional lawyers emerges. Together with lawyers the study of law emerges, which “in its later development compares juridical systems of different peoples and different epochs, not as reflections of economic relations but as self-explaining systems. This comparison finds similarities. The lawyers call everything more or less similar in different systems natural law. The scale that measures what is related to natural law is operating through the most abstract expression of the law justice. Since then the main goal of development of the law, in the lawyers opinion, is to draw human life conditions nearer to justice, or eternal justice. But this justice always expresses only ideological expression of existing economic relations from their conservative or revolutionary point of view. The justice of Greeks and Romans was slavery, the justice of bourgeoisie of 1789 demanded to overthrow feudalism, because it is unjust. So views on eternal justice vary not only in different places or times, but they also vary from person to person.”
- 134. The teaching of Hugo Gratius
The theory and practice of antimonopoly regulation
. Organizational and legal support for antitrust policyare two methods of antitrust regulation: direct and indirect. The direct method of regulation includes measures eliminating or warning the monopoly position of individual actors in the market. And measures of indirect regulation include mainly financial and lending practices to prevent and overcome the monopoly in the economy. Thus the essence of nearly any antitrust policy is to use the benefits of large-scale economic and neutralize its adverse effects associated with the weakening of competition in commodity and other markets. The specifics of Russian monopolies affected the characteristics of the legislative regulation of their activities. In capitalist countries, the monopoly came when there were already market relations, and the state in order to prevent the strangulation of competition introduced restrictive regulations. The Russian competition legislation was developed with strong monopolies and a developing market relations. Therefore, for our country, it is important not only to limit the monopoly and abuse of dominant position, to enforce the competition rules, to punish their violation, but also create a competitive environment, showing the political will. The first law relating to antitrust economics has appeared in Russia in 1991 - the law "On competition and restriction of monopolistic activity on commodity markets," from March 22, 1991. From 1991 to 1999 a large number of objectively necessary laws was introduced, forming the organizational framework for the regulation of monopolies. For example, the law "On Privatization of State and Municipal Enterprises in the Russian Federation" of July 3, 1991, "The supply of products for federal state needs" from December 13, 1994, "On the financial-industrial groups" of 30 November 1995 ., "On natural monopolies" on August 17, 1995, "On Joint Stock Companies" dated December 26, 1995, "On Noncommercial Organizations" on January 12, 1996, "On Advertising" on July 18, 1996, " Measures to protect the economic interests of the Russian Federation in Foreign Trade "on April 14, 1998 and others, as well as legal acts of the President and the government. But in 1999, eight years after the reforms, antitrust legislation was desperately in need of improvement, mainly on the basis of generalization of enforcement. There was a need to upgrade the entire framework to make it possible to reliably prevent the abuse of market power, infringing the interests of economic entities to apply penalties to businesses and individuals, including officials of the federal and regional executive authorities and local self-government, it is better to regulate the safety and quality of goods and services. As a result of this need, the Russian government in 1999 established the Ministry for Antimonopoly Policy and Entrepreneurship (MAP). It was created on the basis of already existing at the time of the State Committee on Antimonopoly Policy, which failed to achieve tangible progress in establishing a full-fledged competitive environment.consists of several bodies - it includes the Russian Federal Service for Regulation of Natural Monopolies on Transport (FSEMT), Russian Federal Service for Regulation of Natural Monopolies in the field of communication (FSEMS), the State Committee for the Support and Development of Small Entrepreneurship (GEM), and possibly will be included Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FEC). But despite all these measures, the level of competition in our country is clearly insufficient. Experts call the reasons for the low level of competition in the RF:has not led, as expected, to the emergence of effective owners, who would have cared about the development of the enterprise;reorganization (restructuring) of enterprises has not been used properly, although could facilitate the mass production of new competitive businesses;business has not received proper development.many countries a small business is a natural basis for the formation of a competitive environment, a testing ground for technological and economic venture projects. It has more options to maneuver money by switching from one activity to another, lower operating costs for workers above the feeling of belonging to the affairs of the company and interest in its success. Even in high-risk small businesses willing to take on the innovations that they can then pass on the reproduction of the industrial giants. As international experience shows, the higher the proportion of small enterprises in the total number of businesses and employment, the lower unemployment and higher competition. Today, however, growth in the number of these companies have slowed down, they are mainly engaged in trading and brokering.small businesses need affordable loans and tax benefits, the creation of leasing companies, information, consulting and training business centers, as well as the involvement of small businesses in new fields of business, international cooperation programs. While all this is wishful thinking because of the scarcity of budget, lack of political will among the authorities, opposition officials, opposed to market reforms.the most important of all measures of antitrust policy in Russia proved to be restrictive measures. They are prescribed by law "On Competition" and the competition authority applied to business entities that violate the antitrust laws. It bans monopolistic activity and unfair competition, the actions of government authorities, which may adversely affect the development of competition. Prohibitions on monopolistic activities are divided into prohibitions against agreements restricting competition and prohibition of abuse of the undertakings of a dominant position. Such abuses are most common (60%) violation of antitrust laws. Quite often such violations as imposing unfavorable contract conditions to the counterparty, failure to order the pricing of the companies agreed to limit competition. Monitoring the prices of more than 200 showed that over a third of companies with dominant market position, inflate the prices of goods and services. The same law prohibits set monopolistically high or monopolistically low prices, to confiscate goods from circulation in order to create or maintain a deficit or raise the price, the counterparty to impose contract terms unfavorable to him or not related to the subject of the contract, to include in the agreement discriminates against the conditions which contractor put in an unequal position compared with other enterprises, to prevent the entry of (or withdrawal from it) to other businesses, to encourage contractor refuse to sign contracts with individual buyers (customers), despite the fact that it is possible to produce or deliver the right product. Monopolistically high price is a price set by the dominant market of the product by an economic entity (the manufacturer) to compensate for unreasonable costs due to not making full use of production capacity, and (or) make additional profits by reducing product quality. Monopolistically low price is the price of purchased goods, established by a dominant market of the product buyer in order to earn extra income, and to compensate for his account of the seller unreasonable costs. That is the price, deliberately established a dominant market of the product by the seller at a level that brings the losses from the sale in order to drive competitors from the market. The ban on the establishment of monopoly prices acts fairly stable, although there are many problems. In particular, the "Provisional guidelines on the identification of monopoly prices" on April 21, 1994 offers simultaneous use of the concept of limiting profits and market the concept of comparison. Application of the first concept is complicated by the fact that production costs should be set taking into account the fact that production capacity could be exhausted. But for a general decline in production in Russia it is impossible. It is also impossible to determine the actual cost, revenue and profitability of the enterprise under the rule of barter and unrecorded cash. Therefore, the preferred concept is the comparison of markets in which the antitrust agency does not need to check the production performance enterprise-monopolist, it is enough, based on external factors to identify monopolistically high or low prices. Now in Russia high monopoly prices are in a wide practice, and in countries with developed competition - monopolistic low, sometimes dumping. The Russian monopoly exerts its anti-competitive behavior mainly in its relations with customers or suppliers, rather than with competitors. But as the competition increases the likelihood of monopoly low prices also increases: powerful multi-company through cross-subsidization at the expense of the profitability of some sectors may understate the price of other products and thus to block competitors. In this part, it is especially necessary to monitor the financial and industrial groups. The same Russian antimonopoly legislation seeks to prohibit agreements that restrict competition, which include:
- 135. The theory and practice of antimonopoly regulation
Transitional Success: USSR to EU
A personal income tax was also introduced to replace the previous network (maze?) of taxes on wages of large enterprises, the incomes of artists and authors, and the various forms of income derived from the emerging private sector. The new tax had all wage and self employed income taxes on a progressive scale with marginal rates from 15 to 47 percent, standard deductions and additional deductions allowed for social insurance contributions, children, transportation to work, etc. Interest, dividends and capital gains were subjected to 15 to 25 percent, encouraging investment only slightly. Social security and health taxes on wages of 36 percent from the employer and 13.5 percent employee replaced the old payroll tax of differential rates. Net taxes on gifts, inheritance and motor vehicles were implemented and the import surcharge was eliminated. Although the system went through amazing changes as outlined above, much of these changes were to no avail.
- 136. Transitional Success: USSR to EU
Those levels of production, consumption, and spending make the U.S. economy by far the largest economy the world has ever knowndespite the fact that some other nations have far more people, land, or other resources. Through most of the 20th century, U.S. citizens also enjoyed the highest material standards of living in the world. Some nations have higher per capita (per person) incomes than the United States. However, these comparisons are based on international exchange rates, which set the value of a countrys currency based on a narrow range of goods and services traded between nations. Most economists agree that the United States has a higher per capita income based on the total value of goods and services that households consume. American prosperity has attracted worldwide attention and imitation. There are several key reasons why the U.S. economy has been so successful and other reasons why, in the 21st century, it is possible that some other industrialized nations will surpass the U.S. standard of living. To understand those historical and possible future events, it is important first to understand what an economic system is and how that system affects the way people make decisions about buying, selling, spending, saving, investing, working, and taking time for leisure activities.
- 137. U.S. Economy
Under what conditions will the oligopolists agree to co-operate in their decisions
When the firms decide to co-operate, they should implement the following policies to be able to maximize their profits.
- They should make sure that there exists an entrance barrier to the market in which they operate in order to prevent other firms from selling a good at an old price after they increase prices for their output. If the barriers do not exist, then the increase in prices would attract other producers. The supply would then increase and prices would fall below the monopoly level, co-operating firms aim to maintain.
- They should decide on the general pattern of production. This could be done by estimating market demand and by calculating marginal profit for all levels of production. Firms need to produce so that their MC=MR (we assume that all firms have similar production costs). The monopoly production level would maximize revenues of each of the firms (see Pic. A). The demand curve for the output is in the region of D. The marginal revenue that corresponds to that curve is MR. The monopoly production level equals to Qm, which corresponds to the point where MR crosses MC. The monopoly price equals Pm. The current price equals Pc and the current output Qc. That means that the current balance is the same as it would be under competition.
- Each participant in co-operation agreement should have production quotas. The monopoly production Qm should be divided between all members of the treaty. For example, each firm could produce a 1/15 share of Qm per month. If all the firms had identical cost functions it would be equivalent to recommending them to balance their production till their marginal costs become equal to the market marginal revenue (MR). Until the sum of the monthly outputs of all producers equals Qm, it is possible to maintain the monopoly price.
- 138. Under what conditions will the oligopolists agree to co-operate in their decisions
- Кнопка перехода в главную форму НАЗАД К ПЛАТЁЖКАМ
- Двенадцать флажков на каждый месяцгода соответственно
- Кнопка перехода в форму ПЛАТЕЛЬЩИКИ
- Выпадающий список СПИСОК ПОЛУЧАТЕЛЕЙ
- Выпадающий список СПИСОК ПЛАТЕЛЬЩИКОВ
- Кнопка ЗА I-Й КВАРТАЛ для быстрого выделения флажков I-го квартала
- Кнопка ЗА II -Й КВАРТАЛ Л для быстрого выделения флажков II-го квартала
- Кнопка ЗА III-Й КВАРТАЛ для быстрого выделения флажков III-го квартала
- Кнопка ЗА IV-Й КВАРТАЛ для быстрого выделения флажков IV-го квартала
- Кнопка ЗА ГОД для быстрого выделения всех флажков года
- Поле года отчёта
- Кнопка ПЛЮС ГОД
- Кнопка МИНУС ГОД
- Кнопка сброс для снятия активизации со всех флажков месяцев
- Скрытая кнопка удаления файлов отчёта. Кнопка появляется если имеется хоть бы один файл со старыми отчётами.
- Справочное поле выдаёт информацию о выбранном для отчёта получателе и сформированном отчёте
- Справочное поле выдаёт информацию о выбранном для отчёта плательщике
- Поле РЕЗУЛЬТАТ. Сдесь выводятся итоговые данные.
- Кнопка СФОРМИРОВАТЬ ОТЧЁТ
- Кнопка ПРОСМОТР ОТЧЁТА
- Кнопка ПЕЧАТЬ ОТЧЁТА
- Кнопка СФОРМИРОВАТЬ ОТЧЁТ ПО ВСЕМ ПОЛУЧАТЕЛЯМ
- Выпадающий список для выбора копий при печать отчёта
- 139. VBA Платежка
Who’s who в банковской системе России
Если вдуматься, проблемы у всех банков, вне зависимости от той или иной группе, общие. Налоги, резервы, отсутствия условий для инвестиций, высокие кредитные рынки - с этим приходится сталкиваться всем без исключения. различия лишь в способах борьбы и в возможности добиваться благоприятного исхода. У элиты и возможностей и способов больше. Просто потому, что на определенном уровне развития бизнеса меняется психология: грубо говоря, она из частнособственнической превращается в государственную. А готовность решать общегосударственные проблемы как раз и дает банку возможность вести конструктивный диалог с властями. Вряд ли случайно Михаил Ходорковский и Александр Смоленский оставили посты главных управляющих своих банков, сосредоточившись на стратегических вопросов взаимодействия с промышленностью и государством. а определение ОНЭКСИМбанка как частного банка с государственным менталитетом стало уже традиционным.
- 140. Who’s who в банковской системе России